CH32 - Zara Aziz Chapter 32 Latin America Revolution and...

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Zara Aziz Chapter 32: Latin America Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century Introduction What happened on 08/11/1973? Summer of 73, all were aware in Chile of the coup against the gov country was at standstill; currency had little to no value, no public transportation, armed soldiers guarded banks and gas stations. Since ‘64, many military forces decided to take over thier gov in LA. LA was divided bw the backers of the radical rev change and those who wished to move slowly towards change. The pres at the time was Salvador Allende , a socialist politician elected in ‘70 and pushed through series of reforms (land distribution, allowing workers to take control of thier factories). Plegded peaceful change. His supporters in the “popular Unity” movement LA was being pulled bw capitalist West and communist SU. US tried to undercut the Allende regime. Allende’s programs (inspired from Fidel Castro) provoked middle class. His pledge to stay peaceful and within the pledge angered impatient radicals who wanted a gov-led socialist revolution. On 08/11/1973, military backed by conservative and anticommunist forces, seized the pres palace→ Allende died in the palace, wife exiled. Military crushed all resistance and imposed authoritarian regime under General Augusto Pinochet . 2 decades that followed were repression. 3000 “disappeared”, 80,000 arrested for pol reasons, 200,000 sent to exile. Example of “dirty war” , it was the internalization of the ideological and pol struggles of the cold war. During this period, neoliberal econ restored econ stability to country. Chile returned to democracy in ‘90. Leadership under AP^ ‘98, Augusto Pinochet, former commander in chief of chilean army and dictator of country from ‘74-’90, arrested in london for crimes against humanity. His opponents looked at his regime as brutal. Chileans relieved that this crime of oppression would not be tolerated. Distinctions made bw 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Countries 1 - The bloc of democratic-industrial countries within the American influence sphere, the "First World". 2 - The Eastern bloc of the communist-socialist states, the "Second World". 3 - The remaining three-quarters of the world's population, states not aligned with either bloc were regarded as the "Third World." Status of LA economy ‘45 and onward LA shared many probs w developing countries but its pol indep and mor Western social and pol structures placed it in a distinct category. After ‘45, but ‘70 specifically, LA elites led thier nations toward capitalist economy over increasing objections from critics within thier nation. Push to capitalism came from Euro and US, LA econ depended on exports→ LA became vulnerable to changes in the world financial system.

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