10 03 07 - Appendicular Skeleton III

10 03 07 - Appendicular Skeleton III - Chapter 9: The...

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Chapter 9: The Postcranial Skeleton, Appendicular Skeleton III Gliding and parachuting – fish, frogs, lizards, snakes, and mammals(many- lemurs, squirrel) Basically, this is controlled descent Intermediate to flight 45 degrees or less to the vertical is called parachuting More than 45 degrees is gliding Flight is more than 90 degrees Drag is increased to oppose the acceleration of gravity Inertia of horizontal movement carries animal Flight – birds pterosaurs bats - lift is created to oppose gravity - evolved 3 times, possibly 4 Bird wings are in the general shape of an airfoil Air moves over and under the wing. Because of the shape, air above wing moves faster than below – creating a pressure difference = lift Bat Anatomy: Wings made uip by hands, the skeleton in the wing is the phlanges Ulna is very small and vestigal usually used for rotation Prevents arm rotation during flight Tibia is also vestigal speculate- some developmental mechanism Walking Use arms like crutches Bird Skeletal Anatomy: Pectoral Girdle: clavicles fuse at the center forming the furculum (wishbone) 2 clavicles on bird Right above keel of sternum Wing: 3 fingers are present in the forelimb (wing) - digits of the wing are numbered 2(upper),3,&4 - 2 carpals remain, since the others have fused with metacarpals 3 and 4: the
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This note was uploaded on 08/16/2008 for the course BIOL 276 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '07 term at UNC.

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10 03 07 - Appendicular Skeleton III - Chapter 9: The...

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