1. Research demonstrates that girls who grow up in a home without a father present are more likely to
experience early menarche compared with girls who spend their early childhood years with their father
in the house.
A) From the perspective of Life History Theory, for what basic fitness-relevant tasks do organisms face
tradeoffs in terms of energy allocation?
In order for any organisms to reproduce, effort must be apportioned among three fundamental tasks such as growth
and development, mating, and parenting.
B) According to Life History Theory, how does the presence or absence of a father in a human female's
early developmental environment provide information relevant to this tradeoff?
Evolution has designed humans to very there mating and child-rearing behavior in accordance with the contextual
conditions in which they develop, so as to maximize their reproductive success. The presence or absence of father
early developmental environment to induce in the child an understanding of the availability and predictability of
resources in the environment, of the trustworthiness of others, and of the enduringness of close interpersonal
relationships, all of which affect how the developing person apportions reproductive effort.
C) Provide an additional empirical finding regarding the behavioral differences, on average, between
human females who grow up in father-present vs father-absent homes. Provide an ultimate explanation
for this finding, in terms of Life History Theory.
Females who grow up in father-present tend to perceive others as untrustworthy, relationships as opportunities and
self-serving, and resources as scarce and/or unpredictable will develop behavior patterns that functions to reduce the
age of biological maturation, accelerate sexual activities, and short-term pair bond. Contrary, females who grow up in
father-absence tend to perceive others as trustworthy. Relationships as enduring and mutually rewarding, and
resources as more available from the same key persons, late age maturations, defer sexual activities, and long-term
D) Provide an alternative ultimate explanation for the correlation between father presence and age of
menarche that does not follow from Life History Theory.
An alternative, though not necessarily mutually exclusive, approach involves more of a cumulative conditional