BLBCJM-CH4-07 - Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chapter 4 P3 Due the week of 9/24; 4.10, 4.24, 4.39, 4.52, 4.66, 4.73, 4.80, 4.82, 4.88, 4.93, 4.109
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A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s) The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount Solution Solvent Solute Soft drink ( l ) Air ( g ) Soft Solder ( s ) H 2 O N 2 Pb Sugar, CO 2 O 2 , Ar, CH 4 Sn
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Electrolytic Properties Aqueous solutions, solutions in water, have the potential to conduct electricity. The ability of the solution to conduct depends on the number of ions in solution. There are three types of solution: Strong electrolytes, Weak electrolytes, and Nonelectrolytes.
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Ionic Compounds in Water Ions dissociate in water. In solution, each ion is surrounded by water molecules. Transport of ions through solution causes flow of current .
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Molecular Compounds in Water Molecular compounds in water (e.g., CH 3 OH): no ions are formed. If there are no ions in solution, there is nothing to transport electric charge.
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Electrolytic Properties
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Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong electrolytes: completely dissociate in solution. For example: Weak electrolytes: produce a small concentration of ions when they dissolve. These ions exist in equilibrium with the unionized substance. For example: HCl( aq ) H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) HC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - ( aq )
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An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, results in a solution that does not conduct electricity.
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Strong Electrolyte – 100% dissociation NaCl ( s ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) H 2 O Weak Electrolyte – not completely dissociated CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) Conduct electricity in solution? Cations (+) and Anions (-)
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Hydration is the process in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner. δ + δ - H 2 O
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Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity? No cations (+) and anions (-) in solution C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) C 6 H 12 O 6 ( aq ) H 2 O Strong Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte Nonelectrolyte HCl CH 3 COOH (NH 2 ) 2 CO HNO 3 HF CH 3 OH HClO 4 HNO 2 C 2 H 5 OH NaOH H 2 O C 12 H 22 O 11 Ionic Compounds
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Exercise 4.1; How many ions would the following Molecules form in aqueous solution? NiSO 4 2 Ca(NO 3 ) 2 3 Na 3 PO 4 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 5
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When two solutions are mixed and a solid is formed, the solid is called a precipitate . Precipitation Reactions Precipitation Reactions
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The Reaction of K 2 CrO 4 ( aq ) and Ba(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq )
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Solubility Rules for Common Ionic Compounds In water at 25 0 C Soluble Compounds Exceptions Compounds containing alkali metal ions and NH 4 + NO 3 - , HCO 3 - , ClO 3 - Cl - , Br - , I - Halides of Ag + , Hg 2 2+ , Pb 2+ SO 4 2- Sulfates of Ag + , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ Insoluble Compounds Exceptions CO 3 2- , PO 4 3- , CrO 4 2- , S 2- Compounds containing alkali metal ions and NH 4 + OH - Compounds containing alkali metal ions and Ba 2+
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Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions Metathesis reactions involve swapping ions in solution: AX + BY AY + BX.
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