BLBCJM-CH6-07A - Electronic Structure of Atoms Chapter 6...

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Electronic Structure of Atoms Chapter 6
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Properties of Waves Wavelength ( λ ) is the distance between identical points on successive waves. Amplitude is the vertical distance from the midline of a wave to the peak or trough.
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Properties of Waves Frequency ( ν ) is the number of waves that pass through a particular point in 1 second (Hz = 1 cycle/s). The speed ( u ) of the wave = λ x ν
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All waves have a characteristic wavelength, λ , and amplitude, A . The frequency, ν , of a wave is the number of cycles which pass a point in one second. The speed of a wave, v , is given by its frequency multiplied by its wavelength: For light, speed = c . The Wave Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light νλ = v
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The Wave The Wave Nature of Nature of Light Light
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The Wave Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light
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The Nature of Waves
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Maxwell (1873), proposed that visible light consists of electromagnetic waves . Electromagnetic radiation is the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Speed of light ( c ) in vacuum = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s All electromagnetic radiation λ x ν = c
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Modern atomic theory arose out of studies of the interaction of radiation with matter. Electromagnetic radiation moves through a vacuum with a speed of 2.99792458 × 10 -8 m/s. Electromagnetic waves have characteristic wavelengths and frequencies. Example: visible radiation has wavelengths between 400 nm (violet) and 750 nm (red). The Wave Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light
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Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation
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The Wave Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light
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λ x ν = c λ = c/ ν λ = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s / 6.0 x 10 4 Hz λ = 5.0 x 10 3 m λ = 5.0 x 10 12 nm A photon has a frequency of 6.0 x 10 4 Hz. Convert this frequency into wavelength (nm). Does this frequency fall in the visible region?
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Exercise: A laser used in eye surgery to fuse detached retinas produces radiation with a wavelength of 640 nm. What is the frequency of this radiation? C = v λ 3x10 8 m/s = (v) x 640x10 -9 s -1 v = 4.688x10 14 s -1
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Exercise: An FM radio station broadcast electro- magnetic radiation at frequency of 103.4 MHz (10 6 s -1 ). Calculate the wavelength of this radiation. C = v λ 3x10 8 m/s = 103.4x10 6 s -1 x λ v = 2.90 m
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Planck : energy can only be absorbed or released from atoms in certain amounts called quanta. The relationship between energy and frequency is where h is Planck’s constant (6.626 × 10 -34 J.s). To understand quantization consider walking up a ramp versus walking up stairs: For the ramp, there is a continuous change in height whereas up stairs there is a quantized change in height. Quantized Energy and Quantized Energy and Photons Photons ν = h E
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The Photoelectric Effect and Photons The photoelectric effect provides evidence for the particle nature of light -- “quantization”. If light shines on the surface of a metal, there is a point at which electrons are ejected from the metal.
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