BLBCJM-CH10-07

BLBCJM-CH10-07 - Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th...

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Gases Chapter 10 Gases Canio J. Marasco, Jr., Ph.D D’Youville College Chemistry, The Central Science , 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten
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Gases Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers. Gases are the most compressible state of matter. Gases will mix evenly and completely when confined to the same container. Gases have much lower densities than liquids and solids. Physical Characteristics of Gases
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Gases Characteristics of Gases Unlike liquids and solids, they Expand to fill their containers. Are highly compressible. Have extremely low densities.
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Gases Elements that exist as gases at 25 0 C and 1 atmosphere
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Gases
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Gases Units of Pressure 1 pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m 2 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr 1 atm = 101,325 Pa Barometer Pressure = Force Area
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Gases Pressure is the amount of force applied to an area. Pressure Atmospheric pressure is the weight of air per unit of area. P = F A
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Gases Units of Pressure Pascals 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 Bar 1 bar = 10 5 Pa = 100 kPa
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Gases Units of Pressure mm Hg or torr These units are literally the difference in the heights measured in mm ( h ) of two connected columns of mercury. Atmosphere 1.00 atm = 760 torr
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Gases Sea level 1 atm 4 miles 0.5 atm 10 miles 0.2 atm
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Gases Manometer Used to measure the difference in pressure between atmospheric pressure and that of a gas in a vessel.
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Gases Standard Pressure Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level. It is equal to 1.00 atm 760 torr (760 mm Hg) 101.325 kPa
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Gases Exercise: A vessel connected to an open-ended mercury manometer is filled with gas to a pressure of 0.835 atm. The atmospheric pressure is 755 torr. A) In which arm of the flask will the mercury be higher? B) What is the height difference between the two arms of the manometer? 755 torr x 1 atm/760 torr = 0.993 atm. Therefore the level in the arm of the flask attached to the gas is higher. 0.835 atm x 760 torr / 1 atm = 634.6 torr h = 755 tor – 634.6 torr = 120.4 torr (or mm Hg)
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Gases Exercise An oil whose density is 0.755 g/ml was used in a closed-tube manometer to measure the pressure of gas in a flask. If the height of the oil column was 7.68 cm, what was the pressure of the gas in the flask in mmHg given that Hg’s density is 13.596 g/cm 3 ? gdh = gdh 13.596g/cm 3 x h = 0.755 g/mL x 7.68 cm h = 0.426 cm Hg = 4.26 mmHg
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Gases Boyle’s Law The volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure.
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Gases Boyle’s Law
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As P and V are inversely proportional A plot of V versus P results in a curve. Since V = k (1/ P ) This means a plot of V versus 1/ P will be a straight line. PV
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This note was uploaded on 08/17/2008 for the course CHE 101 taught by Professor Churchhill during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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BLBCJM-CH10-07 - Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th...

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