PSYC 329 Exam Review

PSYC 329 Exam Review - PSYC 329 Study Guide Exam 1 1 Why...

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PSYC 329 Study Guide Exam 1 1. Why does the world appear the way it does? A. “That’s Just the Way it is”= Naïve Realism -animals perceive things differently -kids and babies see the world differently than adults -illusions B. “It’s a Mental Construction”= Subjective Idealism -we can’t always see what we want -we see the same things for the most part 2. Is it true that a below-threshold stimulus is never perceived? ~No. Subliminal messages are not never perceived but not OFTEN perceived. 25% of the time in studies people will say yes to seeing below-threshold. -Thresholds are determined by measuring the smallest difference between two stimuli that a person can detect. Ex. Add pens to backpack, how many until you can tell? 3. Relationship between physical stimulus and a psychological response is not always 1:1 -Response Compression : response magnitude grows slower than the stimulus magnitude Ex. Light; brightness perceived slower than actual change -Response Expansion : response magnitude grows quickly than the stimulus magnitude Ex. Pain; we perceive pain as more intense than actual change 4. Why do eyes look red in photos taken with a flash? Animals? A. Eyes look red in the photos since the flash of light cause a reflection of blood vessels located in the back of the eye due to our blind spot. B. Animals do not absorb light but yet have a reflective tissue which acts like a mirror reflecting the light back at the vehicle making the animal see in the dark more effectively. 5. What is a Blind Spot? ~ Blind Spot is where axons of ganglion cells leave the retina. We do not notice it since our mind fills in the space with the surrounding colors. 1
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6. A. Why do we have to move our eyes to read? - High acuity causes our eyes to read provided by densely packed cones in the fovea. Thus we are moving our fovea from point to point while reading. B. Why do we have trouble reading outdoors at dusk? - Environments lack of light forces rods become more dominate in dim light, and cones are needed to read. C. Why do we see stars better after we’ve been outside in the dark for a while? -Dark adaptation. The longer we are outside, the better we can see light and rods take time to adapt into the dominant scotopic vision. D. Why do we see starts better with out peripheral vision? -More rods are located within out peripheral vision and since they are more sensitive to dim light, we see stars more clearly with our peripheral vision. 7. For maximum visibility in the dark what color is best? ~ Blue light; rods are more sensitive to blue or green light. In the dark a red light would appear brighter if looked at centrally since cons are more sensitive to red or yellow light whereas from the side the blue would appear brighter with out peripheral vision.
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