HISTORY7BSTUDYGUIDE - =RACE/IDENTITY =ECONOMY =FOREIGN...

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=RACE/IDENTITY =ECONOMY =FOREIGN AFFAIRS Reconstruction 1.Radical reconstruction envisioned transformation of southern society/economy Overthrow slaveholding elite Use power of federal government to support social revolution Give black men power, protect exertion of this power Racially egalitarian society Ideas based in Congress, conflicts with presidential reconstruction 2.Lincoln Reconstruction Worked on during Civil War Point was to weaken Confederacy (doesn’t protect blacks) Offers amnesty to white southerners if loyal to union Temporary regulations (black codes) Conservative plan to attract reluctant confederates 3.Johnson Reconstruction Loyal governor of seceding state Hated planting elite/aristocracy May 1865=proclamation of amnesty, offers pardon to officials and not rich Claims “official reconstruction”, still black codes Reestablishes slavery 4.Congress Joint committee for investigation discovers violence Extends Freedman’s Bureau (established during war) Distribute food/fuel to possessionless freedmen Helped displaced white refugees Divide abandoned land among African Americans Labor contracts between workers and employers (ban whipping) Helped volunteers/missionaries establish schools for freedmen Civil Rights Act of 1866 African Americans=US citizens with basic rights No political rights AJ vetoes, claims African Americans got “special privilege” Congress overrides veto, radicalized by conflict 5.Reconstruction of 1867 (radical, Congressional) Andrew Johnson’s state governments provisional Military officers in charge of registering black voters Establish new constitutions guaranteeing right to vote Growth of African American representation in authority New governments=expansive, modernized End imprisonment for debt Set up public school orphanages/hospitals women can own property End property qualifications for juries No federal aid for projects
borrowing/credit is expensive (lenders are rich people who don’t like radical) Corruption with inexperienced politicians Portrayed as worse (racist portrait of blacks in power) Birth of a Nation shows radical reconstruction saved by KKK 6.1876 election = end of reconstruction Compromise of 1877=Rutherford B Hayes withdraws union occupation Disregards rights/safety of African American 7.Constitutional changes 13th abolishes slavery Not things that are similar to it (sharecropping) 14th = Civil Rights of 1866 in constitution No state shall abridge rights of any citizen (birthright) No explicit racial government state level, not federal level protection 15th = right to vote regardless of race, color, history of servitude Not enforced in “redeemed” Southern states (open terrorism of KKK) 8.Reading: How Free is Free shows limitations of emancipation/reconstruction 9.Reconstruction reveals failure of government to integrate African Americans into post-Civil War society, divisive national identity Plain Wars 1.

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