ESS 101 Exam 1 review - ESS 101 Introduction to Geology...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 7 pages.

ESS 101, Introduction to Geology, Spring 2017, Prof. V. Helmke REVIEW SHEET – EXAM #1 – February 22nd, 2017 Lecture Exam Topics: 1) Earth’s interior, 2) Plate tectonics, 3) Minerals, 4) Rock Cycle, 5) Volcanoes Density equation: D=m/v Velocity equation: v=d/t Earth’s Interior Scientific method: understand scientific use of the terms “Theory”, “hypothesis”, and “proof”. - Hypothesis: posed question/guess. - Theory: system of ideas trying to explain something. - Proof: evidence that proves a hypothesis right Understand the formation of solar system: solar nebula theory 1. Galactic matter is concentrated 2. Stars form and collapse 3. Star explodes (super nova) 4. Solar Nebula (nebula= interstellar cloud of gas and dust) o Dense rotational cloud remains o Condenses and flattens into disk o Rings of material separate from ancestral sun o Material in ring coalesces into planets **** basically a nebula formed and all of our planets stemmed from it Understand the formation of earth: homogeneous accretion and differentiation - Homogeneous accretion: accumulation of meteorites, until sufficient gravity to condense & raise temperature - Differentiations o Dense at center (Ni and Fe sink to center to form core) o Less dense silicates rise to surface (form magma ocean) Cooled to form crust Know the compositional layers of earth and their properties including mineral composition, density… 1. Felsic: light 2. Mafic: dark 3. Ultramafic: green 4. Intermediate: felsic & mafic - Crust: very thin outer rocky shell of earth (1 st layer)
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

o Continental crust: thicker & less dense; felsic o Oceanic crust: thinner & more dense; mafic - Mantle: hot solid that flows over time; ultramafic (2 nd layer) o Contains asthenosphere - Core (3 rd layer) o Outer core: metallic liquid, mostly iron o Inner core: metallic solid, mostly iron - Mechanical Layers o Lithosphere: Rigid/brittle outer shell of Earth Composed of both crust and uppermost mantle Makes up Earth’s tectonic “plates o Asthenosphere Plastic zone where lithosphere floats Makes up early tectonic “plates” - Know the functional layers of the earth and how they relate to plate tectonics. - Earth’s magnetic pole reversals: what is it and how do we use this information? o Switches in the magnetism recorded in magnetic minerals, north and south directions will switch on a compass. (south will now point where north used to and vice versa). PLATE TECTONICS - Understand concepts of continental drift and seafloor spreading o Continental draft: the movement of the continents across earths surface 1. Pangea (super continent) 2. Late paleozoic fossils 3. Late Paleozoic Glacial Patterns o Sea floor spreading: Seafloor moves away from the mid-oceanic ridge due to mantle convection Convection is circulation driven by rising hot material and/or sinking cooler material - Know the evidence for continental drift 1.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern