ESS 101 Exam 3 review - REVIEW SHEET FINAL EXAM May 8th...

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REVIEW SHEET - FINAL EXAM May 8th, 2017, 1:00pm, Schmucker Link 151 ESS 101, Introduction to Geology, Spring 2017, Prof. V Helmke Topics: Deserts Glaciers Groundwater Surface Water Shorelines Deserts: Know the definition of the terms: desert, eolian, arroyo, alluvial fan. o Desert : an arid (dry) region with less than 25 cm precipitation/year o Eolian : landscaped influenced by wind o Arroyo : (wash) is a dry creek, stream bed or gulch that temporarily or seasonally fills and flows after sufficient rain o Alluvial fan : a fan-shaped mass of alluvium deposited as the flow of a river decreases in velocity Know the 2 types of deserts we discussed in lecture. o Subtropical Deserts o Rain Shadow Deserts are Created on the Lee Side of Mountain Ranges Know where and why they form. o Subtropical Deserts are a Result of Global Circulation Patterns Warm, moist tropical air rises and heads north/south As the air rises it cools, causing precipitation (and drying of air) The cool, dry air sinks near 30°N/S. Little precipitation occurs at these latitudes, which creates subtropical deserts. The equator receives the most solar radiation throughout the year o Rain Shadow Deserts are Created on the Lee Side of Mountain Ranges
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1) Warm, moist air is supplied by the sea 2) As the passes over the mountains it rises and cools, causing precipitation and drying of air mass 3) The air is dry by the time it reaches the back side of the mountains, so little precipitation occurs in these areas What is the predominant agent of erosion in deserts? o Water : despite low rainfall, running water is the predominant force shaping most desert landscapes (very effective agent of erosion) o Streambeds flow intermittently, typically during/after heavy rains Most of the time, desert streambeds are dry Most rain in desert regions comes from occasional, often violent, thunderstorms, producing flash floods o Desert washes or arroyos o Alluvial fan What is the agent of erosion most unique to deserts? o Wind : erodes, transports and deposits sediment in desert regions Silt and Clay Transport (Suspended Load) Sand Transport (Saltation) Large daily temperature and pressure differences lead to strong winds in desert region Know and be able to ID the 4 wind-eroded landforms. o Desert Pavement : rocks left behind after wind carries fines away; forms when wind removes clay, silt, and sand from the desert floor, leaving pebbles behind o Blowouts : depressions carved by wind; created by deflation where only fine particles exist
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o Ventifacts : sandblasted rock o Yardangs : remnants of soil left behind by wind Know the 2 wind-deposited landforms. o Sand Dunes : mounds of loose sand piled up by the wind; cross beds dip in the same direction as the wind Barchan dunes : crescent-shaped; horns that point downwind Transverse dunes : relatively straight, elongate dunes Parabolic dunes : horns that point upwind; typically anchored by vegetation Longitudinal dunes : parallel to the prevailing wind direction; formation mechanism still not fully understood
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