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INR FINAL STUDY GUIDE** I’ve locked this so that it can’t be deleted/changed since it looks prettycomplete. Thanks to everyone who contributed and good luck on the exam!**(ALSO the book has a website for those of you who didn't buy it:)1.What are International Laws and International Norms? How are they formed and how do they relate to each other? Why do they matter? What are TANs and what role do they play in international relations?a.International laws and norms are institutions that seek to shape how states understand their interests and to constrain the ways in which they interact. As globalization expands, the scope of international law and norms and their potential effects also expand b.States create and abide by international law because of the cooperation it enables. Although states are typically dependent on “self help” for enforcement, the benefits for cooperation to states are often large enough that international laws areself-enforcing, or in the interests of states to follow apparently willinglyc.International norms affect world politics by changing how individuals and in turnstates, conceive of their interests and appropriate actions in their interactions with other statesd.TANs (Transnational Advocacy Networks) have an important effect on world politics by promoting normative values. TANs also alter interactions between states and facilitate cooperation by providing information about international agreements and monitoring compliance2.What are human rights and why are they abused? Why do countries sign human rights treaties and are these treaties effective?a.International human rights law is an institution created by and largely reflecting the political norms of western, liberal democracies. The norms embodied in these laws remain controversial, are not charged equally by all countries and have not yet been internalized in many societies and governmentsb.States impose human rights as a means of demonstrating their commitment to democracy and political liberalization, to lock in domestic political reforms, or because they are induced to do so by contingent rewards provided by others (a form of linkage)c.Individuals and states have an interest in international human rights and thus undertake costly acts to punish states that violate the rights of their citizens. But these interests are rarely strong enough to compel states to pay high costs to protect vulnerable individuals and groups outside their own bordersd.States that violate human rights reason that in their interactions with other states they will likely not face serious consequences for their behavior and therefore, can freely abuse individuals and groups. Unfortunately, these states are most
likely correct. Although international human rights law does indeed promote improved practices, it appears to be limited effectiveness in the actions of states 3.What is civil war? How does it differ from interstate war?