Review Questions Exam 2 - 1 The two types are some things...

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1. The two types are some things that are up to us and some are not up to us, internals and externals. a. Our opinions, impulses, desires, and aversions are up to us while our bodies, possessions, reputations and public offices are not up to us. b. The things that are up to us are by nature free, unhindered, and unimpeded; the things that are not up to us are weak, enslaved, hindered, not our own. c. If you should only think what is yours is yours, and what is not your own is not your own, then no one will ever coerce you, no one will hinder you, you will blame no one, you will not accuse anyone, you will not do a single thing unwillingly, and no one will harm you because you will not be harmed at all. We should be indifferent towards those externals. d. As stated in point 8 in the Handbook, do not seek to have events happen as you want them to, but instead want them to happen as they do happen, and your life will go well. Nature is there and there is nothing we can do to change it. The only thing we can do is to accept what happens in nature. e. There is no such distinction, we cannot divide things into these two extreme categories. The part that we have more or little control over is missing. f. I think that this distinction is quite unrealistic compared with what ordinary people think, and it is hard to us to accept that we don’t have any control over our bodies. It is impossible for us as human beings to not to care about externals. I think we have more or less control over things. It is not true that we have no complete control over what stoics considers as externals and have absolute control over internals. 2. Since our bodies are externals, and our thoughts and opinions are internals that we have completed control over. Therefore, even though Anytus and Meletus can kill Socrates, they only hurt his external body, but they cannot interfere with Socrates’ ideas and opinions which he had absolute control over. If you make yourself invulnerable, and detach from those externals, then no one can able to harm you. Death is nothing dreadful, it is the judgment about death that it is dreadful-that is dreadful, the fear of death. What upsets people is not things themselves but their judgments about the things. Because although your friend is upset about the death of his beloved, you should not be affected by his emotion since his beloved is an external. It is okay for us to grieve with him, but do not put true emotions into it, instead, fake it. You are not going to give up your own principles. 3. I think this piece of idea is foolhardy since our lives are always projective. If we cannot know what is going to happen in the next, how can we be such confident to stay calm, not worrying about things, and still be happy. One path to happiness will not suit everyone. Although things may not go as we thought would be, but this doesn’t mean that we should absolutely flow with nature. If we cannot project which event is going to happen or which step we should take, we would find it to act out. In other words, there is no action related to this piece of idea.

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