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Blood Outline - The Cardiovascular System The Blood Fluids...

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The Cardiovascular System: The Blood Fluids of the Body Cells of the body are serviced by 2 fluids blood interstitial fluid Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid & then into the cells Wastes move in the reverse direction Hematology Functions of Blood Transportation Regulation helps regulate pH through buffers helps regulate body temperature helps regulate water content of cells by interactions with dissolved ions and proteins Protection from disease & loss of blood Physical Characteristics of Blood Thicker (more viscous) than water and flows more slowly than water Temperature
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pH Blood volume = Typical values given as percentage of body weight Lean, muscular, athletic animals tend to have higher percentages than animals with more body fat Components of Blood Hematocrit Plasma vs. Serum Plasma: Serum: Blood Plasma 0ver 90% water 7% plasma proteins albumin globulins (immunoglobulins) antibodies bind to foreign substances called antigens form antigen-antibody complexes fibrinogen for clotting 2% other substances electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, waste products Formed Elements of Blood
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Red blood cells ( erythrocytes ) White blood cells ( leukocytes ) granular leukocytes agranular leukocytes Platelets (special cell fragments) Hematocrit Percentage of blood occupied by cells female normal range 38 - 46% (average of 42%) male normal range 40 - 54% (average of 46%) testosterone Anemia Polycythemia Formation of Blood Cells Most blood cells types need to be continually replaced In the embryo occurs in yolk sac, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes & red bone marrow In adult occurs only in red marrow of flat bones like sternum, ribs, skull & pelvis and ends of long bones Hematopoiesis Hemopoietic Growth Factors
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Regulate differentiation & proliferation Erythropoietin (EPO) Thrombopoietin (TPO) Cytokines are local hormones of bone marrow produced by some marrow cells to stimulate proliferation in other marrow cells colony-stimulating factor (CSF) & interleukin stimulate WBC production Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes Contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin that gives blood its red color Biconcave disk 8 microns in diameter increased surface area/volume ratio flexible shape for narrow passages Normal RBC count male 5.4 million/drop female 4.8 million/drop new RBCs enter circulation at 2 million/second Most domestic animals have about 7 million RBCs per microliter of whole blood Hemoglobin Globin protein consisting of 4 polypeptide chains One heme pigment attached to each polypeptide chain
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Transport of O2, CO2 and Nitric Oxide Each hemoglobin molecule can carry 4 oxygen molecules from lungs to tissue cells (oxyhemoglobin) Hemoglobin transports 23% of total CO2 waste from tissue cells to lungs for release
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