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Week6_Xrays - 3 Pet 100.000 households Divorce is the most...

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Unformatted text preview: 3 Pet 100.000 households. Divorce is the most unpopular . Brittany, Berri, the Pyrénéen, Savoy, and Auvergne. _ general natality for the whole of France is low—“2., ‘ .5 per 1000 inhabitants, and 3 births per marriage, the ‘ , mes being, in the Gers 146 per 1000, and 32 6 per 1000 ' mistere. In the south of France illegitimate births are awmnumber, whilst in the north (principallyin the Pas- ‘5 ', the Somme, the Seine Inférieure,dtheblEureCi f as, and as ially in Paris) they are oonsi era e an wwwnstant. p'ghus, in 1894 there were 778,937 legitimate J against 76.451 illegitimate births, the corresponding mum for 1893 being 808,110 find 76,662. The general amuty for 1894 was 21 per 1000, the extremes being the film, (15 per 1000) and the Bouches-du-thne (26-9 per ), Still-born children numbered 42,046 (24,543 males to 317503 females)—a fairly constant figure since 1881. :Ihe Lani} in the birth-rate leaves thinking Frenchmen as anxxous 1” over for the national future, and fully justifies the ecy that this great country will, say 100 years hence, E “I! egated to the position of a second- or third-rate Power. ,7 Health 4/ Paris. The appended table shows the deaths from infectious diseases that occurred in Paris from 1890 to the end of 1895. The deaths of inhabitants of the suburbs situated outside the fortifications who succumbed in the Paris hospitals are not 5' . l c , a. 5 ’ i t E. E - s —' “ a sa- 5. *6 s I 5 2 a; t: i s | = a s4 g t a i m ,_'__,___._. __ ,mmss 271 17 i 679 173 419 455 , ,, 1394 on 155 993 151 .255 1009 , ,, 1395 570 260 an m 508 1266 i , 1392 891 42 909 158 as: 1403 i ,, )891 416 39 983 202 332 1361 I 1890 656 76 1495 223 491 1668 5 .. wieWe-lr 1598 544 1133 . 236 433 1340 fie very marked decrease in the death-rate from infectious W in general cannot fail to strike the reader. London .ibelf cannot show such an improved record as regards typhoid fever. The diphtheria figures are also most reassuring, the Mil-rate having fallen from 1840 (average of ten years) to -485——less than a quarter. This speaks volumes for the dimcy of the new antitoxin treatment. Parisian Medical Journals. . 1n the course of a single twelvemonth no fewer than 82 periodicals having reference to the science and art of medicine have been added to the already ample supply pro- duced in Paris. In 1894 the number published was 177, but by the end of 1895 the portentous list had been lengthened to 199. Protection as applied to the Practice of Medicine in Fumes. " Hy remarks on the abov'e subject in last week‘s issue of ‘1'!!! LANCE}: are corroborated by the appended resolutions ‘ by the medical section of the Students’ Association 1! Paris. I quote from La Prone Médtoala, and refrain from supplying a translation. 7. “Indtudiantsen médecine. membres de l’AIsociation getter-ale des Menu de Paris, renni- pour discuter lee mesures A prendre in l'égard betudknts étrangerl,~ee sent uremi- aux dispositions suivanwa : “1. Les etudiants étnngen, event de prendre leur premiere latterly» mu. dsvrcnt prosenter u_n cortifimt d'études Iupérieures ohtenu .i enmen devnnt un Jury compoeé de profeueun d’une Faculté Au moment de s‘inscrire h in prefecture du département Oil ils “ l’intention d'exercer, lea docteurs en médecine devront disposer: v, .“ a) Lesdpieces étnbliuant leur qualite‘ do Franoais; 7‘“ Le lbms freneti- de docteur en m6decine: Tour es diplbmee exigés des étudlnntl frenetic an moment de in at ds leur premiere inscription. ‘Lnoune exception aux dispositions pm'cédentes no sen admise. “ Bur in question de l'entre'e dos eta-lingers dam lee Facultés - . nous avonl prnsé que l'équivalenoe accordee dam Ion ch~ “In ectueiies east one Lie losufllunte d'études Iupérieum et j d’autre M ii eel-alt engeré d'exlger des étrangers les diplémes ; , aux etudiants francs“. - 3"“ 8!!! ll question do l'exsmlce de la médecine. nous esiimom juste de .; lee eta-angers aux memes exigences que les dooteurs frencais. hunt, on moment do s'e'tabiir, Ivon- obtenu la naturalization 131111 F impossible de lenr imposer an moment oi: ils commencem. leum PAlils:—-—BERLIN. [Fan 1.1896. 331 «Etudes. etant données lee conditions exigéel par ll loi du fl juin 1889 sur- la naturaliution (in naturalisation pout Otto worries: (l) spree trol- ans de domicile autorisé; (4) aux etrnngen qui Justifient qu'lls resident en France depuie dix unnee- sans interruption). ” Nous avons reserve Is question den concours ui’relOVe uniquement de l'Aulstance publique de Paris, dos munici t6! ou d'admlnietrr tions dlverses." ., . BERLIN. ' (Fnou our: own Commrmm.) Tho Recent Diacovary in Photography. Prior-Essen Bowman's discovery continues to interest scientific circles and the general public in an extraordinary degree. Popular lectures and demonstrations on the subject are held here every evening in the overcrowded amphitheatre of the “ Urania,” a. society for promoting a general know- ledge of natural science, and all the tickets are already taken for the next meetings. Surgeons have begun to make prac- tical use of the discovery. In one of your correspondent’s cases. for instance. a finger which had sustained a compound fracture and from which a sequestrum had been removed was photographed by the new process, and the regeneration of the bone was thereby made visible. In another case the 'position of a piece of glass embedded in the tissues was ascertained by the same method. Similar reports come from other universities, as, for instance, from Berna, where Pro- fessor Kocher has photographed a needle in a woman’s hand; it had made its way under the skin some time ago and had not been found by any.other means. Professor Roentgen came to Berlin last week, at the invitation of the Emperor, in order to show his discovery, and he was expected to speak at a scientific meeting, but he left the city on the following day. The Antitazin Treatment of Diphtheria. The Imperial Health Office has issued a statistical report on the use of diphtheria antitoxin in the hospitals from April to June, 1895; 2130 cases were reported, of which 1812 (= 851 per cent.) recovered and 306 (= 143 per cent.) died; 23 of the latter died within' the first twelve hours; as they had come to the hospital in the final stage of the illness they are to be excluded from calculation, and the mortality is to be reckoned on the basis of 283 deaths (= 13-3 per cent). In the first quarter of the year the num- bers were 173 and 16-7 per cent. respectively; 710 cases are reported as being mild, and of these only 1 died; 293 cases are said to have been of moderate intensity and 1021 cases, of which no died, were severe. Of 106 patients with 13 deaths no iculars were given. As regards age, the report states 1: 41 patients were children under one year. of whom 17 died, giving a mortality of 4l‘5 per cent; 218 were from one to two years of age, with 80 deaths (= 36'? per cent.). The death-rate decreases as the age of the patients increases. ‘Those of three years have a mortality of 171 per cent, those of seven years one\of 8 2 per cent., and those of fifteen years one of 5-2 per cent. The injection of the serum was performed on the first two days of the illness in 752 patients, of whom only 48 died, giving a mortality of 64 per cent. This is a much smaller death-rate than in the first quarter of .the - year. The im- provement is due, according to the report, , to the greater strength of the“ pro ’on which is now in use (1000 units instead of 650). The injections performed on the third day were followed by a mortality of 10 per cent, those on the fourth day bye mortality ,of.17'3 per cent, those on the fifth day by a mortality of 235 per cent.. those from the sixth to the tenth day by a. mortality of 283 per cent, and those from the eleventh to the nineteenth day by a. mortality of 17 6 per cent. 841 patients entered from laryngeal diphtheria; 588 of them were operated on and 176 died (= a mortality of 29-9 per cent.). Some secondary effects of the antitoxin are reported, including skin erup- tions, pains in the joints, and suppuration at the place of injection. The result of collective investigation in the hos- pitals during the second quarter of the year is. therefore. that antitoxin has an obviously favourable influence on the disease, whilst the accidental efiects are of no importance. Treatment If Pmttatic Enlargement. Castration for hypertrophy of the prostate has been recommended and successfully performed by Dr. White of Philadelphia, who found that this operation was followed by a diminution of the gland and a decrease of pain. Dr. White’s method is less dangerous than the direct removal of the In. ,3, .1896] .GLI‘EICAL mmmmofis '1 ‘OF’ -TEII>NEW.T.HOTOGRAP1{Y. :J‘Il. Ill-rm , Mural. Jovuu. 3‘61 gigflosrffen'lirflh .APPLIEATION' 0r Tris rm 'Er‘. PHOTOGRAPHY Til-MEDICINE VAND‘ .. “ "’Iiifi-llBGERYv ., ' ' .5»,[Rsron-r r0 ruanmsn Msmcsn Jamar“) .ur: , :. We" have. commissioned municateiwithhus; Mr. Rowland writes to*us as’fo'll‘ows 2,‘ l interest in the subject.,has not. diminished, and’ numerous ‘ communicationshaveappeared; yet it is hard to find any. matter .of'importance as to this very difficult problem. ‘In England, Mr. Gifford, 'of Chard, has been working hard, and has produced many curious results, it is true, but none that are in anyway explanatory-of the new discovery. The chief dificulty in making ra id‘ headway consists in the scarcity of suitable tubes, the whole of the English stock having been bought up almost on the first receipt of the intelli ence from Germany,-and of these-but a small proportion ave been found to be of any use. Fresh arrivals are daily coming in, and some are being made in Germany. As many of our readers are probably already trying the new method, a de- scription. of' the actual appliances employed may be of use, together withsome hints as to the chorce of apparatus and good methods of working. THE CHOICE or A Corr. AND TRANSFORMER. First, as to the coil. This must be a fairly large one,'say 7-inch spark. It must be a really ood instrument, made: by a reliable maker; the cheaper Frenc i coils are of no use. It is important to have sufiicient battery power, for want of this is the most ire uent cause of failure in coil work. Dry cells are of no useat a l, and bichromate batteries fall ofl'so rapidly that they are unsuitable‘for the long exposures sometimes neces- sary. The best form of battery is undoubtedly Groves’s 'or Bunsen’s. A street supply from a company's mains, if avail- able, can be used with the least trouble. In using it, how- ever, care must be taken to transferm it to a suitable pressure, - ' ' Although results undoubtedly can be obtained by the use of acoil alone, yet .the best so im- have been obtained by using a small Tests transformer. These transformers can now be obtained from the instrument maker of suitable size for coils' from' 2-inch ‘spark and upwards. Their effect is to raise the frequency of alternation of the current to sn'exceedingly high pitch. The choice of the tube is the most'imImrtant matter. Too much care cannot be devoted to this. The vacuum must be exceedingly high; nothing else is of the slightest use. Before purchasing one it shoul be tried by-the instrument maker, and the character of the is- eharge noticed. If the tube lights up with an apparently uniformr whitish green glow, then the tube may be expected to give; ood results; if, however, the discharge is continuous in po 9. to pole the vacuum is a low one, and the tube use- _ ss for the ‘urposefin 'view.’ The character of the glow as noticed by t 9 eye can be’taken as‘a fairly good criterion as to fine possible performance of the tube. The glow should, I find, be eta-whitish purplish colour, quite-distinct from the green Buorescence of the‘glass. Great care must be taken of such a tubepand when in use it- must be most carefull insulated, for a frequent cause of destruction of good tubes is the‘break‘ Fag thrdugh of theldischarieéto someneighbouring good con- fihetor. The tubesmust . suspended by silk threads from t glass support, and-carefully cleaned on the outside. 2-3. 7' :‘Mn. Gns'ronn’s Resume: Tnnm EXPLARATIONr ’ - ‘ H:Mr:.Gifl’ord’s work has already been alluded to. He. has . blind, among other th' , that it ’ is possible to photograph ugh opaque bodies without-a. tube at all, using simply the I? hidischsrge from (meat the dischargers of a large coil. this way he has produced images of coins quite distinctly. WES-hm ‘ Mr. Sidney Rowland to investigate ; mo‘appl'ication of Roentgen—s discovery and to study prac- fighlflylits applications. .119 is'cmployed, now in’ doing so, v with some interesting results. .Any of our members who may have suitable cases‘of interest which they'desire to have v mwmgated'hy the' new iahmogmphy'hm Invited to com: ' resultssfrom"isochromatiéo-of-high’rapidity develo ed with - 'Not‘imuch further light'has been thrown on the nature of pypo'andceodu'wfllere with” no'lmupemble' d1 culwm the “new radiation since the discovery was announced. The. » :1 have repeated these ‘expcrinrents,~‘using;'insteaflmf'a coil disolmrgeytha-t from .19. Tests transformer,-witli' the result that g I have obtainednot only the shadowraf the coin to, - . but; perfect Jamm- of theengravingon theiooina-Mn': - argues.from 1 z of the nature of ‘light, but rather of anelcctricsl-efi'eot. But ord ese experiments thatRoenlgen .z- wareth this argument fails, Ithink, in thmlight cf thefotlowing ax- periment. . In: this case th'ngpenny maplacaibclziudthe plate, so as to avoid the .possnbihty, of any 31. ._:.efl’ect', and with exactly the same result-namely,:a'faitb1u village of the fine = Eression of. the coin. It is obvious, themforhythatwe have ereetodo :with an electriuil cont-actieflectrmndmot with ,ROentgen‘rays at all, - ~y - _- ~ I ---- '- ’ ’ - .As ,to' the best- plates-to" employ; 1-- ,. w .-. havbzfoundvthe'best Working the new process hit-only needs ear-cindotails and the careful selection of the tuber-The latestifocm iaof this shape, one electrode being an aluminium plateaird’th‘c other a ring. -_ The plate should be the cathode. - 2 - ’1 ' ' ' ' \\,\--"/ With an apparatus of this dcscriptién, which isno't very bulky, and on y requires care-in-workin‘ , 'it is quite. ssible for anyone to obtain negatives thatwifi'show all‘ atlas been shown up to-the present. Thecaccompanying~ hand (1). 363) was taken by me. with such an _zipparatus wrth an exposure of twenty minutes. Professor S. P. Thompson’s conclusions uptothcpresent are : - ' , . - . I. That success depends more on the degree. of exhaustion (of the tube) than'anlything else- Only the highest exhaustion 130 use. ' » I- ~ 2. Sharply defined shadows need as a- source alsmll bulb.» 3. The .1: rays do not enmnatc exclusively, ashes been sup- posed, from the phosphorescent patches on the: glass. 0n the contrary,.he has cases of double shadows cost by one tube, where the stronger shadow was shown as by ray'emanating straight from the cathode, while the weaker one was thrown as by re ys emanating at the phosphorescent patch; _ . 4.. Professor Thompson finds diamond to'be 'more opaque than black carbon. - _- ' 1 - v. 5. In wood (pine) the dark resinous streaksar-e more trans- parent than the lighter coloured tissue. . v — f . .--. ‘ fl 6. A specimen .of flies in ambershows no- shadow of the res. , a . . .. 7. There ap curs-to be no difi‘erence-in the-degree oi opacity of magnetisedjand non-magnetised iron; .g -. :~- -, Professor Thompson and Professor Lodge agreeinreprd- in: the rays as rather of- the nature ofsound Waves than of light. But they‘ differ as to the-lengtli,the one-considering them as excessively short, the other (probably) as longer than the rays of visible light. .; j, ' . _- And these embody all that can-.begdefinitely stated at present. It is __hoped-_that aiext weekphotogmpbs-of cases will be ready demonstrating the practical application of the new discovery. _ ' . , I. ,_ ' . ' - Some of the earliest endeavours to apply Professor Roentgen‘s discovery not only to-dia nesi's-biit tb treatnmnt are reported from Vienna. Profeésor osetig Wusthe first toutilise the new method. At the Medical Society-he reported two cases in which operative proceduréswetre carried-out underthe guid- ance of the exact knowledge of thaanatomical conditionsob- tained by the new radiation. The accompanying illustrations 362 are re roductionsl More“. Jon: r. l of photographs of the cases which were taken y Roentge ’s method in Professor Franz Exner’s Phy- sical Institute. distal phalanx of he first case is one of deformity the hallux, which appeared to be double. of the This diagnosis had already been made without the helpbf the new photography, but there was a difiiculty in distin— ishin which vgvlll'iich titre supern Professor Mosetig whole of the dou graphy showed, h lateral one) artic other was merel with the normal tinctly to be see comfort it afford the real condition his body removed normal phalanx. ‘ In the other case d to the of his abnormality before having a part of f the two bones was the normal one and merary would have had to resort to remove the As this could not be made out, Is distal phalanx. The Roentgen photo- wever, that only one of the two bones (the lated with the first phalanx, while the a supemumerary appendix, articulating distal phalanx by a sort of facette, dis- in the photograph. Besides the great patient to see with his own eyes , the surgeon was enabled to spare the the situation of a revolver bullet could be exactly made out after every other method had failed. The bullet had imbedded itself into the fourth interosseous space of the right hand, carpal bone. The the slight deformity caused by it in the metacarpal bone. surgeon’s hand was guided by the this case also the and become tightly fixed to the fifth meta- photograph shows clearly the bullet aiIid n photo- graph, and the bullet was easily removed. These photographs were taken b mine of a very large Ruhm-Korfl’ inductor, the exposure ein limb had to lie di sensitive plate. two hours, for which time the patient’s ectly (and quietly) on the box with the his seems a. great drawback of the method, but good photographs have since been obtained after a much shorter exposure. of the new discov graphs taken, outs Professor N cuss? calculus, the latter quite impenetrable stones were not quite opaque. was taken through The results were so soon to give the Herr E. Hasche experiments in th Franz Exner, of through which a p they were able to s osseous tissue had ceeded in of the bones of the vessels. This see was the first to attempt the application ry to medical diagnosis. He had photo- de the body, of gallstones and of a vesical consisting of phosphates, which proved to Roentgen’s rays, while the cholesterine The photograph of the latter a layer of calf’s liver 4 centimetres thick. promising that Professor Neusser intends l and Dr. 0. Th. Lindenthal have made Physico-Chemical Institute of Professor Vienna.l mEthod a trial on the living patient. In the finger of a colleague, stol bullet had passed many years before. ow the injured bone in which the loss of been made good by callus. They also suc- photogra hing the bones of a child’s arm, forearm and foot, but the; ’ failed in their attempts to get pictures skull and trunk. On a dead hand, how- s to open up a new possible application of ever, after injectio‘%, they were able to photograph the blood the method to the been successful in caching of anatomy. further modification, or rather extension, Professor AdolplEIand Dr. Lenz, of Elberfeld. seem to have of the Roentgen p able to photo ph than the handfsu further, that their only the bones but In France ex ri by Professor n Oudin. M. Gariel, Facult , doubts genera ly applied 1‘ was supposed. He the greater num body. In the tho otography. They announce that they are the bones of thicker parts of the body h, for instance, as the arm and wrist ; and, ethod enables them to photograph not the connective tiss...
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