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Unformatted text preview: ME 3523: THERMODYNAMICS II A Review of the Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Concepts System Types (and related concepts): Closed system (or system) -- fixed mass. Open system -- mass can be added or removed. Control Volume-- region of fixed shape and fixed orientation (relative to an unaccelerated observer) Isolated system-- no heat, no work, no mass interaction. Surroundings-- everything else outside a system. Boundary -- delineates region which system occupies. Control Surface -- boundary for a control volume. Universe-- everything (system + surroundings). Equilibrium, Property, and State: Property -- an observable characteristic of a system. Extensive Property-- directly proportional to amount of matter present. (Extent) Intensive Property -- not dependent on amount of matter present. (Intensity) State -- the thermodynamic condition in which system exists. (This is characterized by a unique set of property values.) Equation of state -- a mathematical relationship between the properties of a system. Equilibrium -- a condition such that no macroscopic changes would occur if system were to be isolated from the surroundings. (Properties are uniform throughout a system at equilibrium.) Process, Path, and Interactions (Work and Heat): Process -- that which brings about a change of state of a system. Quasi- equilibrium (or, quasi-static ) process -- occurs such that at any stage, the deviation of system from equilibrium state is infinitesimal . This is an ideal process. Nonequilibrium (or, real ) process -- the deviation of system from equilibrium state is more than an infinitesimal amount for part of, or the whole process. Cycle -- process (or processes) resulting in a final state which is identical with the initial state of the system. Nonflow process -- associated with a closed system during which no mass flow into or out of the system occurs. Flow process -- associated with an open system; mass flow into or out of the system is permitted. Isothermal process (T stays uniform and constant); isobaric (or, isopiestic ) process (p stays uniform and constant); isochoric process (V stays constant); isentropic process (s stays uniform and constant); isenthalpic (h stays constant). Path -- the series of (quasi-equilibrium) states through which a system passes while undergoing a change from one equilibrium state to another. (This only exists for the quasi-equilibrium process. ) Interaction -- involves an exchange, occurring at system boundary, between system and surroundings. Heat-- a form of interaction which occurs by virtue of a temperature gradient at system boundary (or temperature inequality between system and surroundings)....
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- Spring '04