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Muscular system

Muscular system - Muscular system Autonomic Division...

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Muscular system 09/10/2007 20:01:00 Autonomic Division: Homeostatic balancing Controls Smooth/ cardiac muscle Glands and adipose Para sympathetic- automated Autonomic control Centers Hypothalamus o Water balance o Temp o Hunger Pons o Respiratory rate o Cardiac o Vasoconstriction (vessel consrtriction)- ie blood pressure control Medulla o Respiration Autonomic Pathways: communication Coordinate homeostatic response o Autonomic
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o Endocrine o Behavioral Blood pressure Tonic regulation- how much digestion, how squeezing are blood vessels, how  tone are skeletal muscles Antagonistic control Receptor directed response Sensory input hypothalamic receptors and somatic/visceral (stomach) sensory  neurons  limbic system or hypothalamous Hypothalamous controls endocrine and autonomic response o Autonomic- respones that change behavior Two Efferent Neurons CNS Preganglionic neuron Ganglion Postgaglionic neuron Target tissue All use nicotinic for ganglia receptor Sypathetic and Parasympatheric have different neurons. Postganglionic  sympathetic neurons use norepinephrine and Postganglionic parasympathetic use Ach Sympathetic use adrenergic receptor Parasympathetic use muscarinic receptors Parasympathic- top and bottom of spine. Cervical??? And lumbar
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Long neuron to ganglion (nicotinic receptor) then a short neuron to target  tissue Sympathetic has short neuron to the ganglion and then a long neuron to the  target tissue. Middle of the Spine. Thoracic and upper lumbar Parasympathetic is rest and digest and Sympathetic is Fight or Flight Parasympathetic Constricst pupils Slows heart Errection Constricts bronchials Muscarinic 2 nd  receptors Sympathetic Starts near spinal cord, short to long o Postganglionic neuron Long Noradrenergic Pupil dilation Heart beat and volume increase Dilation o Blood vessels o Bronchioles Catecholamine release
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Fat breakdown Ejaculation Inhibitory actions o Digestion- slow down, move blood away from digestive system o Pancreas secretion o Unrination Adrenal Medulla Sympathetic stimulation o Catecholamines released into blood Epinephrine Norepinephrine o Located above right kidney o Motified sympathetic ganglion right in the center of adrenal gland. Ganglion activates chromaffin cell that releases epinephrine  Heart Transplant cannot reconnet the parasympathetic and sympathetic  nerves. Heart rests at parasympathetic level. Increased heart rate depends  on epinephrine release. Thus very slow warmup is required.
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