Section 3 Review Questions 08-30-2007

Section 3 Review Questions 08-30-2007 - Human Physiology...

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Human Physiology (KINE 301) Test 3 — Review Questions 1. Name the two major functions of muscles. Muscles have two functions: to generate force and to generate motion 2. Name the three types of muscle tissue. Cardiac, smooth, and skeletal 3. Which types are striated, and what causes this appearance? Skeletal and cardiac muscles are striated. It means that the tissue has light and dark bands under a microscope 4. Name three specific locations of smooth muscle. Stomach, urinary bladder and blood vessels 5. What controls the contraction of skeletal muscle, and how does this differ from cardiac and smooth muscle? Skeletal muscles are contracted by somatic neurons, where as cardiac and smooth muscle are controlled by mostly autonomic neurons 6. What % of total body weight comes from skeletal muscle? 40% 7. Define the following terms: tendons, origin, insertion, flexor, extensor. Tendons- attach muscle to bone Origin- the end of the muscle that is attached closest to the trunk of the bone or to a stationary bone. Insertion- more distal or mobile end of the muscle Flexor-a muscle that brings the center of the two bones it is attached to closer together Extensor-a muscle that contracts bringing the bones it is attached to farther away from one another. 8. What is a motor unit? How do their sizes vary? Motor unit- group of muscle fibers and the somatic motor neuron that controls them. Finer movements require smaller motor units 9. How do some individual muscle cells develop into such large cells? Last updated 8/30/2007
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Embryonic muscle cells fuse to form long cylindrical cells. 10. Define the following terms: sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, myofibril, sarcoplasmic reticulum, terminal cisternae, transverse tubules (t-tubules), triad sarcolemma- membrane of a muscle fiber sarcoplasm- cytoplasm myofibril- highly organized bundles of contractile and elastic proteins sarcoplasmic reticulum- modified ER that stores Ca2+ terminal cisternae- concentrate and isolate Ca2+ T-tubules- lumens into the muscle fiber that rapidly transfer AP into the center of the fiber. Triad- a single t-tubule and the two terminal cisternae it is associated with 11. How many myofibrils might be found in a skeletal muscle? What determines this number? Each muscle fiber may contain a thousand or more myofibrils. More myofibrils more power 12. Name the two contractile proteins of myofibrils. In addition, name two regulatory proteins and two accessory proteins in myofibrils. Myosin and Actin. Regulatory proteins- tropomyosin and toponin. Accessory proteins- titin and nebulin 13. Why do we have so many isoforms of myosin? The different isoforms of myosin have different speeds of contraction 14. Describe the structure of the thick filament. each myosin molecule looks like a tadpole, in skeletal muscle 250 myosin molecules
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This note was uploaded on 08/21/2008 for the course KINE 301 taught by Professor Gibson during the Spring '08 term at Rice.

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Section 3 Review Questions 08-30-2007 - Human Physiology...

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