Section 2 Review Questions 08-30-07

Section 2 Review Questions 08-30-07 - Human Physiology...

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Test 2 — Review Questions 1. What are the two basic types of physiological signals? Chemical and Electrical 2. Cells that receive these signals are called __ target _____ cells. 3. What are the four basic methods of cell to cell communication? Gap junctions, contact-dependent signals, local communication, long distance communications 4. The protein channel of a gap junction is called a ___ connexon _______________. 5. When a group of cells function like a single cell with multiple nuclei, we call it a_____ synctium _____________ 6. What is a paracrine? Autocrine? Paracrine is a signal that acts on neighboring cells, Autocrine is a signal that acts on the cell that produced the signal 7. What is a neuromodulator? A slow acting neurocrine that acts as either an autocrine or a paracrine 8. What are cytokines? Eicosanoids? Cytokines are peptides that control cell development, differentiation, and immune response. Eicosanoids are paracrine and autocrine signals made from lipids 9. What is the difference between a neurotransmitter and a neurohormone? Neurotransmitter is released into the extracellular space where are neurohormones are released into the blood stream. 10. How do cytokines differ from hormones? Cytokines act on a broader spectrum of cells and are not produced by specialized glands and are made on demand. 11. Name three possible locations of receptors of a cell. What determines the site of binding? Receptors can be in the membrane, cytosol, nucleous. 12. Be familiar with the four categories of receptors and ligands. Lipophilic (membrane diffusing), Lipophobic ( membrane barred), ????? Ligan gate ion channels, integrins, receptor enzymes, g-protein coupled 13. Give one example of a ligand-gated ion channel from your notes. ?? calcium gate acetylcholine binds and opens Na+ channel in muscle cells. 14. Study figure 6-7 for a general understanding of the basic pattern of a biological signal transduction pathway. 15. What is amplification of a biological response and how is it mediated by a cascade? Amplification is the transformation of a single signal molecule into multiple secondary messenger molecules. Each messenger molecule in the trasduction pathway activates the next messenger molecule until a finally a response is produced. 16. What are integrin receptors? Describe their actions. Integrin receptors are proteins that span the membrane and attach to cytoskeleton via anchor proteins . Ligand binding causes response involving altering the organization of cytoskeleton. Mediate wound repair, cell addehsion, immune 17. Describe receptor enzymes. Receptors that have either protein kinases or gunalyl cyclases on their ends that become activated upon ligand binding. 18. What is the most common signal transduction mechanism?
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This note was uploaded on 08/21/2008 for the course KINE 301 taught by Professor Gibson during the Spring '08 term at Rice.

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Section 2 Review Questions 08-30-07 - Human Physiology...

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