Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - Chapter 16: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free...

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Chapter 16: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy 3/24/2008, 10:06 AM e.g. H 2 + O 2 ---> H 2 O (spontaneous, but very slow) u says nothing about the rate s spontaneous process : occurs without outside intervention we will use it to predict if a process will occur. s thermodynamics : the study of energy flow The energy of the universe is constant. s Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. s 1st Law of Thermodynamics : Definitions kinetics tells us how fast a reaction will goand to what extent. thermodynamics tells us the initial and final states, and if the reaction occurs in the direction written and under which conditions. Thermodynamics vs. Kinetics The driving force for a spontaneous process is the increase in entropy. s probability u As we increase the number of molecules, the probability of finding them all in one bulb decreases. u illustration reference: Table 16.1 (Zumdahl) s entropy (S): a measure of molecular randomness or disorder S sollid < S liquid << S gas s solid -- most ordered; only so many positions
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This note was uploaded on 08/21/2008 for the course CHEM 105BL taught by Professor Warshel during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free...

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