mgmt 310 exam #2 review - Chapter 7 External& Internal...

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Chapter 7 External & Internal Forces of Change External o Changing consumer needs & wants o New government laws o Changing technology o Economic changes Internal o New organizational strategy o Change in composition of workforce o New equipment o Changing employee attitudes The Calm Waters Metaphor Lewin’s description of the change process as a break in the organization’s equilibrium state. o Unfreezing the status quo o Changing to a new state o Refreezing to make the change permanent White-Water Rapids Metaphor The lack of environmental stability and predictability requires that managers and organizations continually adapt (manage change actively) to survive. Types of Change Organizational Change : any alterations in the people, structure, or technology of an organization. Structure: Changing an organization’s structural components or its structural design Technology : Adopting new equipment, tools, or operating methods that displace old skills and require new ones o Automation – replacing certain tasks done by people with machines o Computerization People : Changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors of the workforce Organizational Development (OD) techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships. Global OD – OD techniques that work for U.S. organizations may be inappropriate in other countries and cultures. Why do people resist change? The ambiguity and uncertainty that change introduces The comfort of old habits A concern over personal loss of status, money, authority, friendships, and personal convenience The perception that change is incompatible with the goals and interest of the organization Techniques for Reducing Resistance to Change Education and communication Participation Facilitation and support
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Negotiation Manipulation and co-optation Coercion Conditions that facilitate cultural change: The occurrence of a dramatic crisis Leadership changing hands A young, flexible, and small organization A weak organizational culture Stress the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.
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