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Document A: Battle of the Yarmuk (Modified) Muslim forces took control of Syria in 636 CE when they fought the EasternRoman Empire (which included Greece) at the Battle of Yarmuk. This account, written by Muslim historian Ahmad al-Biladuri in the 800s CE, describes the battle. The Muslims gathered together, and the Greek army marched against them. The Greeks and their followers in this battle tied themselves to each other by chains, so that none of them would run away.The battle they fought at al-Yarmuk was of the fiercest and bloodiest kind. In this battle 24,000 Muslims took part. By Allah's help, some 70,000 of them [the Greeks] were put to death, and their remnantstook to flight, reaching as far as Palestine, Antioch, Aleppo, Mesopotamia and Armenia. In the battle of al-Yarmuk certain Muslim women took part and fought violently. Among them was Hind, daughter of 'Utbah and mother of Mu'awivah ibn-abiSufyan, who repeatedly exclaimed, "Cut the arms of these non-Muslims with your swords!" Source: Al-Biladuri, “The Battle of the Yarmuk (636) and After,” written in the 800s CE. Vocabulary remnants: rest of the armyDocument B: Treaty of Tudmir (Modified)This treaty was signed in 713 CE between ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, the commander of the Muslim forces invading Spain, and Theodemir, the Christian King of a region in southern Spain. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu
In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate. We [Abd al-Aziz’s forces] will not harass him [Theodmir], nor remove him from power. His followers will not be killed or taken prisoner, nor will they be separated fromtheir women and children. They will not be coercedin matters of religion, their churches will not be burned, nor will sacredobjects be taken from the realm, as long as he remains sincere and fulfills these conditions that we have set for him: He will not give shelter to fugitives, nor to our enemies, nor encourage any protected personto fear us, nor concealnews of our enemies. He and [each of] his men shall [also] pay one dinarevery year, together with four measures of wheat, four measures of barley, four liquid measures of concentrated fruit juice, four liquid measures of vinegar, four ofhoney, and four of olive oil. Slaves must each pay half of this amount.