lecture3f07

# lecture3f07 - 1 Research Methods(F07 Outline Today's...

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1 Research Methods (F07) Outline Today’s outline: – Review correlational and experimental research – Give you examples of each from my own research The research process is similar in that hypotheses are translated into data What is this process called? _______________________ Correlational Research – Examines relationships between variables – Relationship can be positive or negative – Example: The more education people have, the greater their income – Is this a positive or negative relationship? Causality Question Can we say that education causes higher incomes? ____________ A third factor might explain them both – like motivation Highly motivated people might (a) get more schooling, and (b) work harder to get \$\$ Next example As people get older, they often lose their memory What kind of correlation is this? Positive or negative? The ________years the ________ memory Causality Question Can we say that aging causes memory loss? ___________ A third factor might explain them both – like _________________ Correlation is not equal to Causation! All we can say is that there’s a relationship between two variables These can range between ______ (perfectly negative) to _____ (perfectly positive) Even when we think the relationship MUST be causal, we can’t assume so without conducting experiments

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2 There are two reasons why correlation is not equal to causation 1. The Third Variable Problem 2. The ___________ problem (chicken and egg) Experimental Research Experimental Criteria – **________________________________ – Treatment vs. Control (2 groups) common – Outcome for each group is compared – Treatment can be claimed as the ______ of any observed group difference (the effect) Example You want to know if caffeine helps students do well on an exam Half are randomly assigned to drink coffee while studying for the test (treatment) The other half drink water (controls) If people in the treatment group outperform the controls, you can say that coffee caused this difference Experimental Language Treatment = the ____________ variable (IV) – The variable that is manipulated (coffee/water) – Presumed to be the causal factor Outcome = the _______________ variable (DV) – The variable that depends on the IV (test score) – The effect you are interested in Today’s Examples Correlational: Do women who have strong romantic fantasies also show less interest in personal power and success? (Rudman & Heppen, 2000) Experimental: Does rap music cause people to think about (and judge) Blacks as hostile? (Rudman & Lee, 2000) Let’s start with the correlational study
3 Do Women Avoid Personal Power? Women are 46% of the workforce, but over-represented in low status

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lecture3f07 - 1 Research Methods(F07 Outline Today's...

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