1224_Lecture23_Lecture - Water Electrolyte Acid-Base...

This preview shows page 1 out of 15 pages.

Unformatted text preview: Water, Electrolyte, Acid-Base Balance Human Anatomy & Physiology II Department of Kinesiology Temple University Chapter 24: Pages 932-945 Fluid Movement Fluids distributed into compartments – Separated by selectively permeable membranes Fluids move from one to another Fluid Compartments Intracellular (2/3 of fluid) – Within the cells – Small amount of sodium and chloride – Large amount of K and P Extracellular (1/3 of fluid) – – – – 25% interstitial (tissue) 8% plasma and lymph 2% transcellular fluid High Na and Cl content Water Balance Metabolic Water Preformed Water Water loss – Obligatory loss Regulation of Intake Dehydration – Increased osmolarity ADH – Decreased BP Renin-Angiotensin Thirst center in hypothalamus stimulated Regulation of Output rate of water and electrolyte loss Stimulated by dehydration ADH released Electrolyte Balance Includes Salts – – – all salts, acids, and bases provide: Neuromuscular excitability Secretory activity Membrane permeability Sodium Balance Most significant solute determining TBW and distribution of fluid in compartments! – – – Cotransport RMP Depolarization Changes is sodium affects: – – – – Plasma volume BP ICF volume Interstitial fluid volume Regulation of Sodium Balance Factors – Hyponatremia – Hyperkalemia – Hypotension Renin-angiotensin Effects – Aldosterone secretion Sodium reabsorption Potassium Balance Most – – abundant cation in ICF Resting membrane potentials Buffer system Aldosterone – Potassium secretion Calcium Balance Most – – – abundant mineral Bones Neurotransmitter release Muscle contraction Parathyroid hormone – Enhances reabsorption from filtrate Calcitonin – Removes Ca+2 from plasma via osteoblasts Acid-Base Balance Major challenge – Maintaining H+ concentration of body fluids – Optimal pH differs in various fluids – H+ produced via metabolic reactions Mechanisms – – – Buffer Systems Respiratory Control Renal Control Buffer Systems Resists changes in pH by converting strong acid or base to weak one – Bicarbonate Buffer System CO2 + H20 <---> H2CO3 <---> H++ + HCO3 – Kidneys aid in removal of HCO3 – Lungs aid in removal of CO2 – Phosphate Buffer System NaOH + NaH2PO4 Na2HPO4 + H2O – Protein Buffers NH2 group of amino acid binds to H+ and creates weak acid Respiratory Control of pH Relates to bicarbonate buffering system – Removes carbon dioxide from body Chemoreceptors increase ventilation – Carbon dioxide rapidly removed Stronger buffering system than chemical buffers Renal Control of pH Neutralize acids or bases – More than respiratory or chemical buffers Secretion of H+ in tubular fluid ...
View Full Document

  • Spring '17
  • pH, Bicarbonate, renal control

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern