StudyGuideForKathryn - A cell is the smallest part of any...

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A cell is the smallest part of any living thing. There are many parts of a cell. Each part of a cell completes a certain function for the cell. All cells include the following parts: Cell Membrane - forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain materials to move into or out of the cell Cytoplasm - a gel-like material inside the cell; it contains water and nutrients for the cell Nucleus - directs the activity of a cell; it contains chromosomes with the DNA Nuclear Membrane - separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm Endoplasmic Reticulum - moves materials around in the cell Ribosomes - make protein for the cell Golgi Bodies - are used for packaging and secreting of energy Mitochondria - break down food and release energy to the cell Lysosomes - are chemicals used to digest waste Vacuoles - are storage areas for the cell Some organelles are found only in Plant cells. These organelles are: Cell Wall - provides structure to the plant cell Chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll that is make food for the plant cell
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Animal Cell
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Plant Cell
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How are cells organized? Cells come in a variety of sizes and shapes, depending on their function. One-celled organisms perform all the life functions by itself. Tissues are formed from groups of similar cells that do the same sort of work. Examples of tissues include: muscle tissue, blood tissue, nerve tissue, connective tissue, and bone tissue. Organs are structures that are made of different types of tissues that work together to do a particular job. Examples of organs include: heart, skin, liver, and kidney, or individual leaves of a plant. Organ Systems are groups of organs working together to do a certain job. Examples of organ systems include: Circulatory System, Digestive System, Nervous System, and all the Leaves of a plant. An organism is a group of organ systems working together. All the cells in an organism may look different and perform different functions, but they all work together so the organism can survive. How do cells change? Mitosis - process in which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei and the formation of two new daughter cells begins Meiosis - two-stage process in which a cell divides to produce sex cells Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Feature Mitosis Meiosis What type of cell (body or sex) Body cell Sex cell Beginning cell (haploid or diploid) Diploid Diploid Number of cells produced Two Four End-product cell (haploid or diploid) Diploid Haploid Number of chromosomes in cells produced Same as parent (46) Half the parent number (23)
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Parts of the Cell Cell Part Function Cell (plasma) membrane controls entry into and out of cell Cell wall shapes and supports a plant cell Chlorophyll traps light and is used to produce food for plants Chloroplasts food for plant cells is made here Chromosomes contains code which guides all cell activities Cytoplasm jellylike substance within cell Endoplasmic reticulum surface for chemical activity Golgi bodies stores and releases chemicals Lyosome digestion center
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2008 for the course BSC 1045 taught by Professor Phelp during the Spring '08 term at Miami Dade College, Miami.

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StudyGuideForKathryn - A cell is the smallest part of any...

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