Chem241a_Lecture_12

Chem241a_Lecture_12 - Or ganic Chemistry 241a Prof Bogdan...

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Unformatted text preview: Or ganic Chemistry 241a Prof. Bogdan Olenyuk Contact Information Office: Old Chemistry 309 [email protected] Phone: (520) 626-0754 Course web site: http://www.chem.arizona.edu/courseweb/074/CHEM241A1_2/FrameSet.html Chapter 5: Reactions and Mechanisms • Organic reactions: – Additions – Eliminations – Substitutions – Rearrangements • Organic mechanisms Today we will cover: Reading Assignment: McMurry (the BOOK), Ch. 5.1-5.7 Types of Organic Reactions • In general, we look at what occurs and try to learn how it happens • Common patterns describe the changes – Addition reactions – two molecules combine – Elimination reactions – one molecule splits into two – Substitution – parts from two molecules exchange – Rearrangement reactions – a molecule undergoes changes in the way its atoms are connected How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms • In a clock the hands move but the mechanism behind the face is what causes the movement • In an organic reaction, we see the transformation that has occurred. The mechanism describes the steps behind the changes that we can observe • Reactions occur in defined steps that lead from reactant to product Steps in Mechanisms • We classify the types of steps in a sequence • A step involves either the formation or breaking of a covalent bond • Steps can occur in individually or in combination with other steps • When several steps occur at the same time they are said to be concerted Types of Steps in Reaction Mechanisms • Bond formation or breakage can be symmetrical or unsymetrical • Symmetrical- homolytic • Unsymmetrical- heterolytic Indicating Steps in Mechanisms • Curved arrows indicate breaking and forming of bonds • Arrowheads with a “half” head (“fish- hook”) indicate homolytic and homogenic steps (called ‘radical processes’) • Arrowheads with a complete head indicate heterolytic and heterogenic steps (called ‘polar processes’) Radical Reactions...
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This note was uploaded on 08/23/2008 for the course CHEM 241A taught by Professor Olenyuk during the Fall '07 term at Arizona.

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Chem241a_Lecture_12 - Or ganic Chemistry 241a Prof Bogdan...

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