euh2000ch12notes - 2 Trade with east becomes greater...

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March 31, 2008 Exploration and Discovery – c. 15 th and 16 th centuries The Basic Questions 1. Why did it start? a. The rise of the Mongols in Asia i. Central Asia around 13 th century ii. Genghis Khan most powerful ruler iii. Opened Silk Road to Europeans after it had been closed previously iv. Marco Polo in 1300s v. With Mongol breakdown, Silk Road becomes increasingly dangerous vi. By 1368, Europeans excluded from china as well b. Rise of the Ottomans i. Muslim fringe group on border of Byzantine Empire ii. Expanded into Anatolia as Byzantine empire declined iii. 1389: defeat Serbs at Kosovo iv. 1453: take Constantinople c. The Portuguese i. Henry the Navigator tries to go around Ottomans to east 1. For gold, in sub-Saharan Africa (circumvent trans-Saharan trade – not successful, so turns to slave trade) 2. Colonize Atlantic Islands 3. Prester John (mythical Christian king in Africa) 4. Spices in east ii. Historians today believe Portugal only turned to Far Eastern trade in 1480s as a RESULT of voyages of Dias and da Gama 1. Push for gold, slaves leads them around Cape
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Unformatted text preview: 2. Trade with east becomes greater reality, thus established trade posts 3. Result is that Spain looks for ways to outflank Portuguese, finance Columbus d. Columbus i. Never achieved main goal of finding east ii. Educated circles thought earth was round iii. Misjudged size of earth by approx. 400% iv. Didn’t know of American land mass 2. The Columbian Exchange – Impact on Americas a. Breakdown on native civilizations (Aztecs, Incas); subjugation of natives b. Slavery (started with encomienda system every landowner got certain amount of native labor) c. Inadvertent genocide (small pox decimated native populations – why didn’t the Europeans die of disease?) d. Intermarriage and mixed populations e. Shift in balance of power to Atlantic coast and development of Atlantic economy f. Centralization of monarchies i. State building takes money, and New World provided lots of silver esp. (which initially caused inflation)...
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euh2000ch12notes - 2 Trade with east becomes greater...

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