PsychologyExam2 - LEARNING A relatively permanent change in...

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LEARNING - A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience CLASSICAL CONDITIONING- Stimulus produces a response - Happens when one stimulus gets paired with another stimulus and leads to a response or reflex - A type of learning - Conditioned = learned Pavlov - Research study: effects of salivation on digestive system - Give dogs food & measure salivation - Problem: Dogs salivated before food was given… salivated when experimenter walked into the room - He found that dogs also salivated to the sound of the bell COMPONENTS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Unconditional Stimulus (US) - Stimulus that we don't have to learn about - The food Unconditional Response (UR) - A reflex - Salivation Conditional Stimulus (CS) - Stimulus we are learning about - The ringing of the bell Conditional Response (CR) - Response produced by a CS - When CS (bell) was paired overtime with the US (food), and eventually the animal learns to associate the bell with the food creating a CR (drooling) Steps in Conditioning 1. Sundae (US) → Drooling (UR) 2. Bell (CS) & Sundae (US) → Drooling (UR) 3. Bell (CS) → Drooling (CR) - Drooling can be UR or CR, it depends on what produces the response… if it's ice cream → UR, bell → CR ***Must take sundae away for drooling to be CR*** HOW CLASSICAL CONDITIONING WORKS… Behaviorist Explanation - Stimulus Substitution ⇒ Pavlov believed the Conditional stimulus replaces the Unconditional stimulus (WRONG) - Dogs did not salivated when pavlov entered the room Cognitive Explanation - Information Theory You are learning that the conditional stimulus is a signal to the unconditioned stimulus - Bell = signal to ice cream - animals have an expectation when the bell is rang Biological Mechanism - Cerebellum (Interpositus nucleus)
- Nerves in cerebellum are active when we learn about CS & CR - If destroyed, animals lose CR - Simple learning in Cerebellum Pairing of CS/US 1. Backwards conditioning - US precedes the CS - Not affected because bell rings after we eat ice cream 2. Simultaneous conditioning - CS and US presented at the same time - Not very affected, ice cream and bell at the same time 3. Delayed conditioning - CS present at least until US is presented - BEST: ice cream is given while bell is still ringing - Bell is still present 4. Trace conditioning - CS is discontinued before US is presented - Not v effective due to delay between bell goes off & food - The increments could be misleading - Relies on memory PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING - E.g. Sadie the cat develope CR to the banging of the spoon 1. Higher order conditioning (second order) - Pairing a CS with something that is associated with the US - E.g. Sadie will know food is coming when drawer open to get spoon - Drawer is paired with the spoon → a CS 2. Generalization - Exhibiting CR to stimulate similar CS - E.g other drawers opening 3. Discrimination - Making distinction w/ stimulus & only responding to CS - E.g Ignoring other drawers that wasn't the spoon drawer 4. Extinction - When presenting CS w/o US, the CR will go away - When continuously providing CS but no US… CR will stop 5.

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