stat 200 - study guide quiz 1 - Chapter 1 Statistics a...

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Chapter 1 Statistics – a collection of procedures and principles for gathering data and analyzing information to help people make decisions when faced with uncertainty. Population – a collection of all individuals about which information is desired. Usually people but could be a variety of things (school, pets, etc.) Sample – a subset of the population selected so that every individual has a specific probability of being part of the sample. Some Important Statistical Principles o Simple summaries tell interesting story and easier to digest than long lists o When discussing the change in the rate or risk of occurrence make sure you include base rate or baseline risk o A representative sample of only a few thousand can give reasonably accurate information about a population o An unrepresentative sample says nothing about population o Cause and effect conclusion cant be made on basis of observational study o Cause and effect conclusions can be made on randomized experiments o A statically significant finding is not necessarily important you have to look at the magnitude. “randomized” experiment – a study in which treatments are randomly assigned to participants. The treatment is a specified regimen or procedure. A random assignment is where each participants has a specified probability of being assigned to each treatment. observational study – one in which participants are merely observed and measured. Comparisons of naturally occurring groups.
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