Thyroid Gland • It is found in the neck inferior and posterior to the mouth. It lies against and below the larynx and the trachea and posterior to the esophagus and carotid sheath. It lies above the clavicle. It is a butterfly shape. • No alternate names • The thyroid gland is responsible for the production of three important hormones: Calcitonin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine (T4 & T3). • Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are made by follicular cells. • Those hormones increase the rate of energy release from carbohydrates. • They speed up the synthesis of proteins. • They accelerate the breakdown of lipids. • They are necessary for a healthy immune system. • Triiodothyronine is five times more potent than thyroxine. • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine and triiodothyronine. • Calcitonin reduces blood calcium levels by three ways: decreasing osteoclast activity,
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