Russo-Japanese WarA war between Russia and Japan over control of Manchuria in China and the Korean Peninsula. 1904-1905•The small, unknown and lowly Japan defeated a large, advanced and powerful Russia on land and at sea and so Japan became recognized internationally as an imperial power•Japan’s victory over Russia challenged the western monopoly in global affairs•Reduced Russia’s global influence and contributed to the unrest that eventually caused the first Russian RevolutionOpium WarsTwo wars that broke out between western states (Britain, France & United States*) and China after the Chinese government attempted to stop opium imports by British merchants.1839-1842;1856-1860*•China was forced to open its borders to foreign interests that had been restricted to only two ports for many years.•It accelerated the decline of the Qing Dynasty as foreign states took control of more and more Chinese territory•It displayed the power of western imperialism since foreign states, had ended China’s sovereignty and eventually came to control most of China’s trade and economy.Pax BritannicaLatin for “British Peace” – A period of relative peace in the parts of the world that were under British control or influence. 1815-1914•It was a reflection of the power of British dominance inglobal affairs as their support or lack thereof usually decided the outcome of conflicts•It made it possible for the spread of westernization•It worsened European imperial rivalries and caused tensions that would contribute to the outbreak of the First World WarGunboat DiplomacyA term in international politics that describes how western states (Europe & the US) intimidated other less powerful states by displaying/demonstrating the superior military technology and capabilities of their navies (hence, gunboatdiplomacy)18th-20thCentury;1741-1996•It enabled powerful imperial states to protect their interests overseas without engaging in open conflict•A reflection of a time when the overall strength of a state was closely tied to the size of its naval forces as a result of Great Britain’s dominance•Also a reflection of the intensity with which western states pursued their imperialistic goalsKew GardensA botanical garden in southwest London with the world’s largest collection of diverse plants, specimens, books, photographs, maps and illustrations related to botany.1759-Present•A symbol of Britain’s dominance in the accumulation
of knowledge about nature and flora, especially of the non-western world•Marked the beginning of the study and use of plants for industrial purposes, vital to British manufacturing
MonocultureA farming method developed during the Industrial Revolution in which a farm grows or produces one crop or livestock species at a time.