Ch13 - Assignment Chapter 13 Class Astronomy I Date October...

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Assignment: Chapter 13 Class: Astronomy I Date: October 15 th , 2007 Review Questions 1. The Galilean satellites are bright enough to be seen even to the naked eye. However to the naked eye, these satellites are lost in the overwhelming glare of Jupiter. But a small telescope or even binoculars increases the apparent angular separation by enough to make the Galilean satellites and their motions visible. 2. As seen from the Earth, the angular separation between Jupiter and the satellites is quite small, never more than 10 arcminutes for Callisto and even less for the other three Galilean satellites. To the naked eye, these satellites are lost in the overwhelming glare of Jupiter. 3. During the 7.155 days that Ganymede takes to complete one orbit around Jupiter, Europa makes two orbits and Io makes four orbits. 4. Our Moon’s synchronous rotation is the result of gravitational forces exerted on the Moon by Earth. Likewise, Jupiter’s gravitational forces keep the Galilean satellites in synchronous motion. 5. By analyzing the determined densities of the Galilean satellites and the spectroscopic observations, scientists could make reasonable accusations of the chemical compositions of these satellites. 6. The Galilean satellites formed around Jupiter in much the same way that the planets formed around the Sun, although on a much smaller scale. 7. Jupiter needs to have a much bigger mass in order to sustain the nuclear reaction to become a star like the Sun. 8. As Jupiter coalesced, the gas accumulating around it formed a rotating “Jovian nebula.” The central part became the huge envelope of hydrogen and helium that makes up most of Jupiter’s bulk. Dust grains accreted to form small solid bodies of Galilean satellites in the outer parts of the nebula. These satellites, like in solar nebula concept, began to orbit in the same direction on nearly same plane. 9. The intense volcanic activity of Io is kept hot by Jupiter’s tidal forces. The flexing and squeezing tidal stresses on Io, caused by the gravitational forces of Jupiter, Europa and Ganymede, allows tidal heating of Io’s interior. 10. Io’s nearly 300 active volcanoes, each of which ejecting an estimated 10,000 tons of material per second, can sufficiently cover the satellite’s entire surface to a 1 meter depth in a century. Eventually, this continual ‘repaving’ of the surface caused no long-lived features to survive on Io, and certainly any impact craters are quickly obliterated. 11. Most of the material ejected from Io’s volcanoes fall back onto the satellite’s surface. The remaining material goes on a remarkable journey into space, by virtue of Io’s location deep within Jupiter’s magnetosphere. 12. The brightening of Io is probably caused by sulfur and sulfur dioxide from Io’s
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Ch13 - Assignment Chapter 13 Class Astronomy I Date October...

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