Ch9 - Assignment: Chapter 9 Class: Astronomy I Date:...

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Assignment: Chapter 9 Class: Astronomy I Date: September 26 th , 2007 Review Questions 1. Nearly 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Earth’s atmosphere is in a state of perpetual activity, and the Earth’s oceans, atmosphere, and surface are powered by three energy sources: radiation from the Sun, the tidal effects of the Moon, and the Earth’s own internal heat. 2. The forces within the Earth folded this terrain and rotated the layers into a vertical orientation. The layers were later revealed when wind and rain eroded away the surrounding material. 3. As volcanic lava pours forth from volcanoes and cause immense cracks in the ocean floors, geologic activity slowly pushes old surfaces material back into our planet’s interior and renews the planet’s exterior. Therefore, some of the rocks found on Earth’s surface are younger than the planet itself. 4. Convection refers to the up and down motion of air as hot air rises and transfers the heat to its surroundings, and as rising air cools and falls downward to be heated again. This continual process is caused by the principal source of energy, the Sun, as it provides energy for the Earth’s atmosphere. 5. The Earth’s surface is warmed by sunlight, which in turn warms the air next to the surface. As the hot air rises, it transfers heat to its surroundings. Then as the air cools, it sinks to the surface to start the process all over again. In terms of radiation, the Earth depends almost entirely on the amount of energy that reaches us from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Thus the heated surface of the Earth emits infrared radiation back to the space and to the atmosphere. 6. Since so little heat comes from inside our planet, the temperature of the Earth depends almost entirely on the amount of energy that reaches us from the Sun. 7. Warm water from near the equator moves toward the poles, while cold polar water returns toward the equator. This influence and the tidal forces join and reinforce each other, producing waves strong enough to seriously erode beaches and sea cliffs. 8. The greenhouse effect causes our atmosphere to prevent some of the radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface from escaping into space. This is caused by the visible sunlight entering our atmosphere, but the infrared radiation not being able to escape our atmosphere. As the surface gets hotter, it emits more infrared radiation. The warming of our planet provides moderate temperatures throughout, but modern technological civilization has been adding too much greenhouse gases. 9.
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Ch9 - Assignment: Chapter 9 Class: Astronomy I Date:...

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