Anatomy & physiology 2 Review for the final lecture exam Endocrine system 1.What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands? Give an example of each. The endocrinesystem controls the body activities by producing chemical substances called hormones. For example hormones, Exocrine glandsecrete their products into ducts or channels, that carry them either to the outside of the body or into body cavities. For example pancreases2 Explain positive and negative feedback regulation and give an example of hormone(s) that use one of these methods.A positive feedback loop causes a self-amplifying cycle where a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction. A negative feedback loop is a process in which the body senses a change, and activates mechanisms to reverse that change.Positive- oxytocin being released to intensify uterine contractions to birth a baby.Negative- the regulation of blood calcium PTH is released by the parathyroid glands to lower blood calcium.3 Explain how the pituitary gland is controlled (anterior and posterior).It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions.The anterior pituitary regulates several physiological processes including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation.Posterior pituitary- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): This hormone prompts the kidneys to increase water absorption in the blood.4 Which hormones are released from anterior and which from posterior pituitary?Anterior : Growth Hormone, prolactin, FSH, LH , ACTH, TSHPosterior : Oxytocin , vasopressin5 Explain where the following hormones are made and their actions: oxytocin, ADH, LH, FSH, PTH, calcitonin, epinephrine, insulin, thyroxine, melatonin.OxytocinADH- made in the hypothalamus and acts on the kidneys to control the amount of water excreted in the urine.LH- made in the gonadotropic cells and in the anterior pituitary gland. Triggers ovulation and thedevelopment of the corpus luteum.FSH- produced in the pituitary gland. Helps control the menstrual cycle and the production of eggs by the ovaries.PTH- made in the parathyroid glands. Is released to elevate blood calcium levels when they become too low.
Calcitonin- secreted by the thyroid gland. Reduces the concentration of calcium when above normal levels.Epinephrine- made in the medulla of the adrenal glands and is released when in fear or stress, increases heart rate and muscle strength.Insulin- made in the pancreas and lowers blood glucose levelsThyroxine- produced in the thyroid gland, plays vital roles in digestion, heart and muscle function.Melatonin- produced in the pineal gland and is the body’s internal clock, increases at night for sleep.6 Deficiency of which hormone can cause diabetes?Insulin7 Which hormone(s) boost the effects of sympathetic part of ANS?epinephrine and norepinephrineBlood8 List all formed elements found in the blood.White blood cells (leukocytes) -, Red blood cells (erythrocytes), Platelets9 Which formed elements are technically considered “cells” and why?
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 18 pages?