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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1-Primate: member of mammalian order Primates, including prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans-Evolution: change in the frequency of a gene or a trait in a population over multiple generations-Bio Anthropology: study of humans in evolutionary framework-Hominid: member of the primate family Hominidae, bipedal posture and large brain-Adaptation: trait that increases reproductive success, produced by natural selection-Paleoanthropology: study of fossil record of ancestral humans and primate kin-Primatology: study of nonhuman primates and their anatomy, genetics, behavior etc.-Human biology: subfield of bio anthropology, human growth and development, adaptation to environmental extremes, and genetics-Cultural anthropology: study of human societies, cross-cultural; subdivision of anthropology Chapter 2-Scopes Monkey Trial: John Scopes guilty of teaching evolution illegally-Later court rules that evolution is the unifying principle of life sciences-Deduction: conclusion that follows logically from a set of observations-Observation: gathering of scientific information by watching a phenomenon-Hypothesis: preliminary explanation of a phenomenon, first step-Scientific method: research procedure in which a hypothesis is stated, data are collected to test I, and hypothesis is either supported or refuted-Polygenism: ancient belief that people are derived from multiple creations.-Monogenism: all people are derived from a single collection.-Bishop James Ussher: calculated the date of creation only by using the evidence -Linnaeus and taxonomy vs. Buffon-Cuvier and catastrophism-Lamarck: organisms make adjustments to the environment during lifetime to pass onto offspring, making them better adapted to their environment-Hutton and uniformitarianism: present = past-Lyell: Earth is constantly changing-Darwin and natural selection: differential reproductive success over multiple generations-Wallace: inspired Darwin-Darwin’s 3 Observations and 2 Deductions...
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2008 for the course PHIL 262g taught by Professor Yaffe during the Spring '06 term at USC.
- Spring '06