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First Midterm Review

First Midterm Review - Chapter 1-Primate member of...

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Chapter 1 -Primate: member of mammalian order Primates, including prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans -Evolution: change in the frequency of a gene or a trait in a population over multiple generations -Bio Anthropology: study of humans in evolutionary framework -Hominid: member of the primate family Hominidae, bipedal posture and large brain -Adaptation: trait that increases reproductive success, produced by natural selection -Paleoanthropology: study of fossil record of ancestral humans and primate kin -Primatology: study of nonhuman primates and their anatomy, genetics, behavior etc. -Human biology: subfield of bio anthropology, human growth and development, adaptation to environmental extremes, and genetics -Cultural anthropology: study of human societies, cross-cultural; subdivision of anthropology Chapter 2 -Scopes Monkey Trial: John Scopes guilty of teaching evolution illegally -Later court rules that evolution is the unifying principle of life sciences -Deduction: conclusion that follows logically from a set of observations -Observation: gathering of scientific information by watching a phenomenon -Hypothesis: preliminary explanation of a phenomenon, first step -Scientific method: research procedure in which a hypothesis is stated, data are collected to test I, and hypothesis is either supported or refuted -Polygenism: ancient belief that people are derived from multiple creations. -Monogenism: all people are derived from a single collection. -Bishop James Ussher: calculated the date of creation only by using the evidence -Linnaeus and taxonomy vs. Buffon -Cuvier and catastrophism -Lamarck: organisms make adjustments to the environment during lifetime to pass onto offspring, making them better adapted to their environment -Hutton and uniformitarianism: present = past -Lyell: Earth is constantly changing -Darwin and natural selection: differential reproductive success over multiple generations
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