week2_evolution - Evolution Pan troglodytes and...

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Unformatted text preview: Evolution Pan troglodytes and Australopithecus afarensis Homo sapiens Homo neanderthalensis Evolution and Natural Selection & Evolutionism Creationism Natural Selection: a process through which certain characteristics of organisms are passed to succeeding generations at the expense of other characteristics. Assumptions of Natural Selection: Variation among characteristics of organisms Some characteristics are better in an environment Characteristics are passed from parents to offspring Adaptiveness and Environment Story of the Peppered Moth: Variation in peppered moths, white morphs are dominant. Black morphs begin to dominate during the Industrial Revolution Environmental change and natural selection lead to changes in the characteristics of Peppered Moth populations The Peppered Moth, Biston betularia Evolutionary Success When thinking of evolution, success is measured by adaptability and how many different varieties of a life form there are out there in the world. Kinds of Evolution Linear Evolution: transformation of an old species into a new one. Divergent Evolution: a species branches off into two or more species. different species independently develop similar adaptations. Convergent Evolution: two or more Speciation Species: a collection of individuals who can interbreed and that also share common habitat, behaviors, and physical characteristics Isolating Mechanisms: processes or events that keep individuals from breeding; lead to speciation Linnean Classification of Organisms Animalia Animalia Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo erectus Animalia Chordata Archosauria Saurischia Tyrannosauroidea Australopithecus afarensis Tyrannosaurus rex Ancient Primates Order: Primates Sub-Order: Anthropoidea Humans ? Monkeys Apes Geological Time Scale 5-10 mya ancestor Evolution of the Primates Evolutionary Trends: Climate Change Evolution of the Primates Evolutionary Trends: Locomotion Brachiation to Bipedalism Knuckle-walker and Biped Evolution of the Primates Evolutionary Trends: Home Bases Evolution of the Primates Evolutionary Trends: Diet Evolution of the Primates Evolutionary Trends: Complex Social Organization The First Hominids Ardipithecus ramidus 4.4 - 5.8 million years BP bipedal Wooded environment Important for apehominid split Earliest human ancestors? Search for the First Human (2002) candidate last ancestor before apes and humans split on the evolutionary tree? Orrorin tugenensis as Writing exercise What kinds of fossils were found? Of what body parts? How many individuals? What are two methods for dating these fossils? How old are the fossils according to paleoanthropologists Martin Pickford and Brigitte Senut? What aspects of the skeleton suggest that these fossils represent a bipedal ape, that is, a hominid? List some specific characteristics mentioned in the video. Our everchanging reconstruction of the human "family tree" The First Well-Documented Hominids: Australopithecines 4.4 2.0 million years BP Found in east and south Africa Several different kinds of Australopithecines Savannah environment ...
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