Ch 41 and 42 Review

Ch 41 and 42 Review - Review Chapters 41 and 42 for Final...

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Review – Chapters 41 and 42 for Final Exam BIOL 112 – Dr. Vaughan – Spring 2005 CHAPTER 41 – ANIMAL NUTRITION Dietary Categories of Animals o Herbivores – eat autotrophs o Carnivores – eat other animals o Omnivores – eat animals as well as autotrophs Feeding Adaptations of Animals o Suspension-feeders – mainly aquatic, sift food particles from water (cilia, gills, baleen) o Substrate - feeders – live in or on food source and “eat through” o Deposit - feeders - feed on the particles of matter in the soil o Fluid - feeders suck fluid from living host (blood, pollen) o Bulk - feeders – most animals, eat relatively large pieces of food Four main stages of Food Processing o Ingestion – act of eating o Digestion – breaks down polymers into monomers the body can use o Absorption – cells absorb small molecules o Elimination – undigested material leaves body Types of Digestion o Intracellular digestion (protists) – cell engulfs good (phagocytosis) to form food vacuole which fuses with lysosome (contains digestive enzymes) o Extracellular digestion (most other animals) Gastrovascular cavities – one opening; stuff in, secrete enzymes, engulf particles, eliminate wastes; cnidarians, flatworms Complete digestive tract (alimentary canal) – digestive tube; specialized regions with stepwise digestion and absorption Peristalsis – rhythmic smooth muscle contractions push food along Sphincters – muscular drawstrings regulate passage between chambers Accessory glands o Salivary glands – secretes salivary amylase (breaks down carbs); parotid gland, sublingual gland, submandibular gland o Pancreas – secretes pancreatic enzymes that buffer acidity of chyme, proteases digest protein
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o Liver – produce bile; has first access to amino acids and sugars after digestion, regulates before sending blood to heart o Gallbladder – stores bile Oral cavity – mouth Bolus – ball of food shaped by tongue Pharynx – “throat”, opens to both trachea and esophagus Epiglottis – blocks trachea during swallowing Glottis – opening to trachea Larynx – voicebox Trachea – windpipe Esophagus – ducts food from pharynx to stomach Stomach – stores food, secretes gastric juice Gastric juice (from pits in epithelial lining of stomach) – pH of 2, mixes with food; disrupts extracellular matrix of meat and plant material o Hydrochloric acid (HCl) – secreted from parietal cells o Pepsin (inactive form is pepsinogen) – secreted from chief cells; begins hydrolysis of proteins o Mucus – secreted from parietal cells Acid chyme – nutrient-rich broth produced by stomach activity Pyloric sphincter – regulates flow of chyme from stomach to small intestine Helicobacter pylori
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Ch 41 and 42 Review - Review Chapters 41 and 42 for Final...

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