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Exam 2 Review - Ch 27 Prokaryotes bacteria and archae no...

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Ch. 27 Prokaryotes – bacteria and archae; no nucleus or membrane bound organelle Symbiosis – ecological relationship between organisms of different species o Mutualism – both benefit o Commensalism – one benefit, one neither; rare o Parasitism – parasite benefits, host harmed Coccus – speres Bacillius – rod-shaped Helix (Spirochete) – spiral Peptidoglycan – in bacteria cell walls; sugar polymers cross linked w/ polypeptides Gram test – cell wall composition o Positive – more peptidoglycan, violet o Negative – pink/red; toxic lipopolysaccharide outer layer, harmful, resistant Antibiotics – prevent formation of cell wall (inhibition of peptidoglycan); effective in G+ Capsule – helps adhere to other/substrate; protect from host’s immune system Pilus – to stick; Fimbrae – more and shorter Cell wall – maintains shape, protection; prevents bursting (hypotonic) and plasmolyze (hypertonic)
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