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Unformatted text preview: Communication and Career Management 1 2007 Holly A. Schroth The Communication Process
Transmission of encoded message through media channels Sender
Idea to be sent Encoded idea Receiver Noise
Decoded idea Idea Received Feedback to sender
2 2007 Holly A. Schroth Labeling the other person negatively Telling the other what to do "You are unwilling..." "You are not looking "Y t l ki at my side" "You are unfair..." "Y f i " "I don't like your style" "You need to..." "I think you " I you... "You should..." "It is better if you " It you... "I know you can..." Language Irritators
Based on research by Holly Schroth, Jon Bain-Chekal and David Caldwell 2005 2007 Holly A. Schroth 3 Appealing to a higher source
"From a legal standpoint" "In th best i t "I the b t interests t of the organization" "This is how we have This always done it" Labeling own behavior as superior
"I'm being reasonable" "This is "Thi i a good d deal" "I know what I am I doing" Language Irritators
Based on research by Holly Schroth, Jon Bain-Chekal and David Caldwell 2005 2007 Holly A. Schroth 4 Rude Implied Threats "Yes, but..." , "We don't need you We don t you" "In all due respect..." "I will take care of it "That is besides the point" y myself" "I'm trying to make you "You better do it" understand" "Who do you think you are" "Honestly" "Obviously" Obviously "Whatever" Language Irritators
Based on research by Holly Schroth, Jon Bain-Chekal and David Caldwell 2005 2007 Holly A. Schroth 5 Engendering Positive Emotions by Thinking in Positive Language With Partner Discuss Comment Solution We/Ours Approach
Positive Against Opponent Argue/Debate Critique Settlement You/Yours Confront
Negative Note: Analogies can reduce negative emotions, lead to fresh ideas & new perspectives (Spector, 1995)
Based on research by Schroth (2007) 2007 Holly A. Schroth 6 Communication Behaviors that Shut Other s Other's Down I t Interrupting ti Not addressing the other's comment g Telling and selling (vs. getting input) Talking over the person Not acknowledging accomplishments Inconsistent messages
Based on research by Haas and Arnold (1997) "An examiniation of the Role of Listening in Judgments of Communication Competence" 7 2007 Holly A. Schroth Utilizing Appropriate Communication Channels Flyers and Bulletins Memos and Letters Telephone Face to face discussions Lean Communications Rich Communications Static Routine and Clear Interactive Nonroutine & ambiguous Based on Lengel and Daft "The selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill: 1988 Academy of Management Executive 2007 Holly A. Schroth Email 8 Emotional Cues in Communication E Emotional C ti l Cues Match emotion with message Mirroring Emotional contagion* 9 2007 Holly A. Schroth Research Findings on Emotional Contagion Can transmit and change mood of g others in two minutes Emotions grab attention and act as signaling system--warnings, invitations, alarms, etc. Take away: be aware of how your mood and emotions impact others
Daniel Goleman "The art of influence entails handling emotions effectively in other people"
For more information on emotion contagion see Barsade's (1998) research. 2007 Holly A. Schroth 10 NonNon-verbal Communication Skills Environment Seating arrangements* Level of formality Other social cues Commonalities "similar to me effect Commonalities similar effect" Handshakes* 11 2007 Holly A. Schroth The Head of the Table: A Good Location for Communication
Side Positions Rectangular table g Head Position Side P iti Sid Positions 2007 Holly A. Schroth 12 7 Table Arrangements
X X XOOO Cooperation O O O XXXX Communication Nonverbal Communication: XXXXX Competition O X OXOX Non-Communication OOOO 2007 Holly A. Schroth Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries 14 2007 Holly A. Schroth Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries (cont'd) Diff tC ti ( t'd) 15 2007 Holly A. Schroth Intonations: It s the Way You Say It! It's
Change your tone and you change your meaning:
Placement of the emphasis Why don't I take you to dinner tonight? Why don't I take you to dinner tonight? Why don't I take you to dinner tonight? Why don't I take you to d e to g t y do t ta e dinner tonight? Why don't I take you to dinner tonight? Why don't I take you to dinner tonight? Why don't I take you to dinner tonight? What it means I was going to take someone else. Instead of the guy you were going with. I'm trying to find a reason why I shouldn't take you. Do you have a p ob e with me? o a e problem t e Instead of going on your own. Instead of lunch tomorrow. Not tomorrow night. Source: Based on M. Kiely, "When `No' Means `Yes,' " Marketing, October 1993, pp. 79. Reproduced in A. Huczynski and D. Buchanan, Organizational Behaviour, 4th ed. (Essex, England: Pearson Education, 2001), p. 194. E X H I B I T 112 16 2007 Holly A. Schroth Communication Barriers Between Men and Women
M Men talk t t lk to: Emphasize status, power, power and independence. Complain that women talk on and on. Offer solutions. T boast about their To b t b t th i accomplishments W Women talk to: t lk t Establish connection and intimacy intimacy. Criticize men for not listening. Speak of problems to promote closeness. Express regret and t d E restore balance to a conversation
17 2007 Holly A. Schroth Silence as Communication Ab Absence of speech or noise f h i Powerful form of communication C Can i di t indicate Thinking Anger Fear Watch for gaps, pauses, & hesitations in g p ,p , conversations 18 2007 Holly A. Schroth Other Communication Strategies Questioning what type and how? Questioning--what Collecting feedback skip level, anonymous email, phone hotline, etc email hotline Share information first Use non e bal listening cues non-verbal c es Acknowledgements; summarize and paraphrase (regulate tempo) 19 2007 Holly A. Schroth Grapevine-- Grapevine--most rapid form of communication Grapevine Characteristics Informal, not controlled by management. Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it it. Results from: Desire for information about important situations Ambiguous conditions Conditions that cause anxiety
20 2007 Holly A. Schroth Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Consequences of Rumors Announce timetables for making important decisions Explain decisions and behaviors that may p y appear inconsistent or secretive Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, risks of current decisions and future plans Openly discuss worst case possibilities--it is almost never as anxiety provoking as the yp g unspoken fantasy 21 2007 Holly A. Schroth Knowledge Management (KM)
Knowledge Management A process of organizing and distributing an organization s organization's collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.
Why Wh KM is important: i i Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience leave goes with them. A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the organization more efficient.
22 2007 Holly A. Schroth Application: Giving Feedback Schedule regular feedback session; inform in advance Prepare yourself and other; set expectations Put the employee at ease with non-verbal Focus on specific behaviors (not personality) Support feedback with data Let the employee speak (procedural justice) Detail a future plan of action Note: No feedback can be worse than negative feedback (see study by McCarty, 1986, Effects of Feedback on Self Confidence)
23 2007 Holly A. Schroth "Politically Correct" Communication Politically Correct Certain words stereotype, intimidate, and insult individuals. individuals In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others. Removed: handicapped, blind, and elderly Replaced with: physically challenged, visually impaired, and senior. p , Removing certain words from the vocabulary makes it harder to communicate accurately. Removed: garbage quotas, and women garbage, quotas women. Replaced with terms: postconsumer waste materials, educational equity, and people of gender. gender
24 2007 Holly A. Schroth Source: The Far Side by Gary Larson 1994 Far Works, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission. 2007 Holly A. Schroth 25 ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2008 for the course UGBA 105 taught by Professor Scroth during the Summer '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Summer '07