History 2300 Class Notes (Second Half of Semester) -...

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History 2300 Notes1-23-17The Contest in the Atlantic World-Participants:-Europe (mainly Atlantic coast kingdoms)-Africa (mainly Atlantic coast kingdoms)-The Americas (North, South, Central America and the Caribbean Islands) The Atlantic World 1400-1625-Europe, Africa, and the…- “New World”- “Americas”: North, Central, and South America. And some of the Caribbean. - “Atlantic World”- “British North America” - “There is no “United States” for weeks and weeks and “America” means a lot ofplaces)Overview of the Process-Exploration -Exploitation -Conquest -Who, what, when, where… why and how. The critical questions we always ask.**Also: “qui bono” – motives: “who benefits?”**For test #1, remember Rhode Island
Marco Polo and the “Northwest Passage” -20 years’ overland journey (1271-95) from Venice to China and back – tales of spices, wealth…-Much exploration from 1200-1800s is seeking a shorter (sea) route…The First Voyages into the Atlantic -Lots of life was centered around the Mediterranean Sea (North of Africa)-Most explorers did not know what was out there or what shape the world was.-Why did the English want spices? Spices made their food taste better and they used the spices to preserve their food. They also used it to cover up (almost expired) food, so they could serve it and eat it. Europe in the Atlantic World -Motives:-Open markets, find goods and resources, and find fabled Northwest Passage to Asia. Explorers were always on the lookout for gold and other valuables, new resources, or people/places to trade their own goods with. -Method: -Technology for long sea voyages:-Lateen (triangular) sail – Arabia -Movable Rigging – East Africa -Military technology superior to others they meet in the Atlantic basinExploring the Atlantic World - (The contest for the Atlantic and the “Players”)-1400 AD shift of European power to the northwest -Out of the Mediterranean – (Mediterranean means “Center of the Earth”)-Maritime technical developments (scurvy and moveable rigging)-1488 Horn of Africa and the routes to the far east-1492 Spain and Columbus
The Great West African Kingdoms: Mali and Songhai -Both kingdoms had: -High culture, society, and economy (Wealth: Had lots of salt and gold)-Timbuktu: A major trade city for each -Route of the great caravans (Africa: Was a “loser” in Atlantic contest) -These people had very developed religion, were very rich, had well developed cultures and societies -Mali:-Mali rises from Ghana Sundiata: “The Lion King” uniter“Savages vs. Civilization” (The European View) Big Deffierences? Not Really…-Culture: All had traditions, institutions, and government -Hygiene and Medicine: Africa/Americas were superior -Technology: Quite similar and appropriate to conditions -NO ONE HAD: Electricity, antibiotics, engines, etc. 1-25-17** Response Paper #1 – Due: February 22, 2017 (Come on the 3rdfor extra credit)“Savages vs. Civilizations” - (The European View) - Big Differences?-Culture: Both had traditions, institutions, and government -Hygiene and Medicine: Africa/Americas were superior Technology: Quite similar, and appropriate to the conditions -NO BODY at this time had electricity, antibiotics, engines, refrigeration, etc.

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