161HW8AEd3F13 - CHEMISTRY 161 HW 8A 24 25 27 29 31 33 35 37...

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CHEMISTRY 161 HW 8A 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 40, 42, 66, 78, 80, 82, 85 8-24 A diatomic molecule that follows the octet rule with a single covalent bond (where “— ” represents two electrons in a shared pair) would have the following Lewis structure: 8-25 For the H—O—H bonding pattern, the oxygen of the central atom forms bonds to the two hydrogen atoms. This uses 4 of the 8 e leaving 4 e left over for the 2 lone pairs. Each hydrogen atom has a duet of electrons, so the lone pairs reside on oxygen and form an octet on oxygen. For H—H—O bonding, the two covalent bonds again use 4 of the 8 e , leaving 4 e for 2 lone pairs. If these are placed on the oxygen atom as shown here, oxygen does not complete its octet and the central hydrogen atom has 4 e , not a duet. This structure would violate the Lewis structure formalism. 8-27 8-29 8-31 The ions I and Ca 2+ have complete valence-shell octets. B 3+ does not have an octet but rather the duet of the He atom. 8-33 (a) For a 1+ charge and 1 valence electron: (b) For a 3+ charge and no valence electrons: 8-35 (a) 3 valence e (B) + 5 valence e (N) = 8 valence e (b) 1 valence e (H) + 7 valence e (F) = 8 valence e (c) 6 valence e (O) + 1 valence e (H) + 1 e (negative charge) = 8 valence e (d) 4 valence e (C) + 5 valence e (N) + 1 e (negative charge ) = 10 valence e
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8-37 (Step 1) The number of valence electrons in CO is Element C O Valence electrons per atom 4 + 6 = 10 (Step 2) There are only two atoms bonded together so neither is the central atom. C O 8-40 (Step 4) In this structure there are 8 electrons from three lone pairs and one bond pair. We need 6 more electrons (three pairs) to match the valence electrons determined in step 1. We add the lone pairs to the chlorine atom. Cl O (Step 5) This Lewis structure is complete. To indicate the charge on this ion we add brackets for the structure and the charge. Cl O (a) For CN (Step 1) The number of valence electrons in CN is Element C N Valence electrons per atom 4 + 5 = 9 Gain of electron due to charge +1 Total valence electrons 10 (Step 2) There are only two atoms bonded together so neither is the central atom.
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  • Fall '16
  • Smith
  • Atom, Chemical bond

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