Chapter Eight - 8 Molecular Structure & Covalent...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 8 Molecular Structure & Covalent Bonding Theories
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22 Chapter Goals 1. A Preview of the Chapter 2. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory 3. Polar Molecules:The Influence of Molecular Geometry 4. Valence Bond (VB) Theory Molecular Shapes and Bonding 5. Linear Electronic Geometry: AB2 Species 6. Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species
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33 Chapter Goals Molecular Shapes and Bonding 7. Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species 8. Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species 9. Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB2U2 Species 10. Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry – ABU3 Species 11. Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry 12. Octahedral Geometry
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44 Chapter Goals Molecular Shapes and Bonding 13. Compounds Containing Double Bonds 14. Compounds Containing Triple Bonds 15. A Summary of Electronic and Molecular Geometries
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55 Stereochemistry Stereochemistry is the study of the three dimensional shapes of molecules. Some questions to examine in this chapter are: 1. Why are we interested in shapes? 2. What role does molecular shape play in life? 3. How do we determine molecular shapes? 4. How do we predict molecular shapes?
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66 Two Simple Theories of Covalent Bonding Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Commonly designated as VSEPR Principal originator R. J. Gillespie in the 1950’s Valence Bond Theory Involves the use of hybridized atomic orbitals Principal originator L. Pauling in the 1930’s & 40’s
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77 Overview of Chapter The same basic approach will be used in every example of molecular structure prediction: 1. Draw the correct Lewis dot structure. Identify the central atom. Designate the bonding pairs and lone pairs of electrons on central atom. 2. Count the regions of high electron density on the central atom. Include both bonding and lone pairs in the counting.
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88 Overview of Chapter 3. Determine the electronic geometry around the central atom. VSEPR is a guide to the geometry. 4. Determine the molecular geometry around the central atom. Ignore the lone pairs of electrons. 5. Adjust molecular geometry for effect of any lone pairs.
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99 Overview of Chapter 6. Determine the hybrid orbitals on central atom. 7. Repeat procedure if there is more than one central atom in molecule. 8. Determine molecular polarity from entire molecular geometry using electronegativity differences.
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1010 Overview of Chapter
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1111 VSEPR Theory Regions of high electron density around the central atom are arranged as far apart as possible to minimize repulsions. There are five basic molecular shapes based on the number of regions of high electron density around the central atom. Several modifications of these five basic shapes will also be examined.
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1212 VSEPR Theory Two regions of high electron density around the central atom.
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1313 VSEPR Theory Three regions of high electron density around the central atom.
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1414 VSEPR Theory Four regions of high electron density around the central atom.
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1515 VSEPR Theory Five regions of high electron density around the central atom.
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1616 VSEPR Theory Six regions of high electron density around the central atom.
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Chapter Eight - 8 Molecular Structure & Covalent...

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