Chapter5 - Chapter Five The Atomic Structure of Atoms Fundamental Particles(5-1 Atoms are comprised of three fundamental particles that were

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Chapter Five: The Atomic Structure of Atoms
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2 Fundamental Particles (5-1) Atoms are comprised of three fundamental particles that were introduced in Chapter 1. Particle Symbol Mass (amu) Charge Electron e - 0.00054858 -1 Proton p or p + 1.0073 +1 Neutron n 1.0087 0
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3 Fundamental Particles (5-1) Keep in mind that protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of the atom. They are responsible for the mass of the atom. Electrons are found outside the nucleus of the atom. Their mass is insignificant in comparison to protons and neutrons. They add no measurable mass to the atom.
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4 Discovery and History (5-2 through 5-4) Many different scientists had a hand in the elucidation of the three fundamental atomic particles. These three sections of your text outline these discoveries. You are responsible for being able to identify images of the experiments and knowing who was responsible for specific discoveries.
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5 Atomic Number (5-5) The number of protons in an atom allows us to identify the atom. The atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in an atom of an element. All atoms of a given element have the same atomic number. Every atom of carbon has an atomic number of 6. The periodic table is arranged in order of increasing atomic number. In a neutral atom the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons.
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6 Mass Number and Isotopes (5-7) The mass number (A) is the total number of protons PLUS neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. E A Z E A
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7 Mass Number and Isotopes (5-7) Isotopes are atoms of the same element (by definition, they have the same number of protons) that have different numbers of neutrons. Therefore, the have different mass numbers. C 12 6 C 14 6
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8 Mass Number and Isotopes (5-7) Because the atomic number of any element is readily available from the periodic table it is sometimes omitted from the symbol. C C 12 12 6 =
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9 Mass Number and Isotopes (5-7) Example: How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in one atom of each of the following? U 238 92 P 32 + Na 23 11 - 2 16 O
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10 Mass Number and Isotopes (5-7) One example of an isotopic series is the hydrogen isotopes. 1 H is the most common hydrogen isotope. One proton and no neutrons 2 H or deuterium is the second most abundant hydrogen isotope. One proton and one neutron 3 H or tritium is a radioactive hydrogen isotope. One proton and two neutrons
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11 Mass Spectrometry and Isotopic Abundance (5-8) Notice that the previous slide refers to how “abundant” the various isotopes of hydrogen are. This just means that different isotopes naturally occur is different amounts. The isotopic abundance or percent abundance of an isotope tells us how prevalent an isotope is.
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Mass Spectrometry and Isotopic Abundance (5-8) Because each isotope of an element has a different number of neutrons they also have different masses. The
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2008 for the course CHEM 1211 taught by Professor Atwood during the Spring '07 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Chapter5 - Chapter Five The Atomic Structure of Atoms Fundamental Particles(5-1 Atoms are comprised of three fundamental particles that were

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