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WEEK_2_outlines - Ren Descartes Foundation of Modern...

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René Descartes: Foundation of Modern Thought in Human Rationality I. The Search for a Foundation of Knowledge: The Question of Truth A. Rejection of inherited knowledge B. Use of doubt as method 1. Sense-perception and dreams 2. Mathematics & a deceptive god 3. The “evil genius” & hyperbolic doubt II. Doubt and the “Cogito”: I think, therefore I am (cogito ergo sum) A. The “thing that thinks” B. Mind vs. Body: the subjective turn C. The Wax and the problem of reality D. Immortality of the soul/mind Hegel’s Absolute Spirit & the Unfolding of History I. Idealism: Definition and Representatives A. versus empiricism B. Kant and the limits of knowing C. Hegel’s move beyond Kant: the dialectic D. Radical Enlightenment optimism: total knowability, science as transparency of Spirit II. Reason in History=Rational Plan A. versus opposition of history and philosophy; history not random B. Idea of Reason in Nature C. Idea of Reason in History: conscious , evolutionary self-knowledge of humanity III. Hegel on Religion and Philosophy
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