040708 - 4/7/08 "The Ware to End All Wars"...

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4/7/08 – “The Ware to End All Wars” (lecture 4) aka “the great war” World War I first blow to system of pre-1914 hobbled along 20 years “the long crisis”, finished by World War II CAUSES OF World War I - Power Differentials (rates of rising/falling power) o Old order couldn’t accommodate new powers (ie Germany) - Imperial rivalries o Destroyed itself from within – limited territory for colonization o Small crises/skirmishes (eg British/French over Sudan, etc.) - Nationalism o Diplomacy had to take into account new forces from below o Newly independent states based on Nationalism o Great powers got involved and used nationalism to their benefit - Alliances o France, Britain, Germany o Russia eyeing parts of AHE, also wanted german protection o France/Britain eyeing Ottoman empire (suez canal, other resources) Ottoman Empire allied with Germany for protection How the war started - Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand I o Serbian nationalists heir to AHE throne gave AHE excuse to crack down Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia - Alliances - German war strategy (Schleiffen Plan) o Some blamed Germany for turning skirmish into war
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o In case of war, fighting on 2 fronts: France/Russia Mobilize quickly, attack France, conquer in 42 days Then attack Russia Plan hard to stop once in motion Sarajevo: June 28, 1914 franz Ferdinand assassinated Results of the War - o 20mil people killed (mostly civilians in Europe) o New technology/tactics Chemical warfare (mustard gas, gas masks, etc.) Machine guns Airplanes Trench warfare Primarily defensive war – not enough technology for offense o Many people who came back were scarred, unable to work, etc. First total war – rationing, direct attacks, mobilization of entire countries, civilians dying of starvation/disease (flu epidemic – 1918 50-100mil) o Property destruction Factories, railroads, much of technological progress undone Europe to Russia, Africa (colonies) - Crisis of confidence in European “civilization” search for new ideologies (communism, fascism)
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040708 - 4/7/08 "The Ware to End All Wars"...

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