051608 - Democratization 70s-90s"third wave of...

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5/16/08 – Democratization 70s -90s “third wave of democratization” End of cold war = end of war & conflict? Peace in our time? End of history? New proliferation of democracies in world during 90s “Waves of Democratization” First: 19 th century (w. Europe, America) o French/American revolutions launched idea of liberty/equality o Industrialization – rise of middle class o Empires broke down o Fear of labor unrest = more people could vote Second: post World War II (Africa, south Asia, Germany, Japan) o Some occupied countries forced to democratize, but kept constitutions Third: 1975-1992 (Southern Europe, Latin America, Eastern Europe) Reverse waves o First: Great Depression (Germany, Italy, Hungary, Romania, etc) – interwar period, weak governments replaced by autocratic/fascist regimes o 60s-70s: newly independent states started weak and couldn’t maintain the momentum, governments overthrown in military coups, anti-communist dictatorships supported by US o Mid 90s to 2008? Many third wave democracies have backslid a bit (former Soviet Union, China?, Middle East, Venezuela, Nigeria) Definitions - De mocracy (minimalist): p eople elect leaders who translate citizen prefs into policy - Electoral d e mocracy: Regularly contested, m ulti-p arty, free and fair elections with universal adult suffrage (“on p ap er” – they hold elections) o Multiple p arties o Secret ballots
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o Government can’t dominate media (cheating) - Liberal democracy =  electoral +civil liberties:  rule of law, sep of powers (multiple   branches), freedom of speech, assembly, religion, and property -
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051608 - Democratization 70s-90s"third wave of...

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