1-Erie Canal- A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West. 2-Samuel F. B. Morse- Invented the telegraph which allowed faster communication over longer distances. He also developed Morse code3-Transcendentalism- An idealistic philosophical and social movement that developed in new England around 1936. Pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830s and 1840s in which each person has direct communication with god and nature and there is no need for organized churches. 4-Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments- Document signed by the majority of the people present at the Seneca falls convention. Stated that “all men and women are created equal”, that women, no less than men, have certain inalienable rights. Their most prominent demand was the right to vote thus launching movement for women’s suffrage should have “separate Spheres” in society. 5-Second Great Awakening- a series of religious revivals starting in 1801 based on Methodism and baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, blacks, and
native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, and moral reasoning against slavery. 6-Temperance Movement- a movement with the goal to decrease the amount of alcohol consumed. This was due to the fact that some Americans were drinking 6.6 to 7.1 gallons of hard liquor every year, severely impacting everyone around them. 7-Eli Whitney- American inventor who invented the cotton gin. Also, contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and east to assemble or exchange. 8-George Fitzhugh- A social theorist who published racial slavery based sociological theories in the antebellum area. He argued that “the negro is but a grown-up child who needs the economic and social protections of slavery” 9-William Lloyd Garrison- Most conspicuous and most vilified of the abolitionist, published “the liberator” in Boston. Helped found the American Anti-Slavery society. Favored northern secession and renounced politics. 10- Gold Rush- In 1849 thousands of miners traveled to northern California after news reports of the discovery of gold at suffers mill in January had spread around the world. This caused all Californians to apply for statehood.
11- Wilmot Proviso- Bill proposed after the Mexican war that stated that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any territory gained from Mexico. It has never passed through both houses but it transformed the debate of slavery.