class notes topic 8_ Intelligence - Intelligence...

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IntelligenceIntelligenceHow do you define intelligence?How would you go about measuring intelligence?Which of the following best describes your views of intelligence?Intelligence is essentially fixed at birth and parents and/or teachers can't really change a child's IQ.Intelligence can be manipulated and changed as a result of experience and learning.How Do You Think About Intelligence? Are you anEntity Theorist - Intelligence fixedIncremental Theorist - Intelligence variableWhat is intelligenceThe ability to learn from experienceThe ability to adapt to the surrounding environmentDavid Wechsler (1975) Intelligence is the global capacity of the individualto act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.Francis GaltonIntelligence was composed of two qualities: the capacity for labor (strength) and sensitivity to physical stimuli. James Cattell brought Galtons ideas to U.S.Cattell proposed a series of 50 psychophysical tests, including hand strength, rate of arm movement, distance threshold for detecting two distinct skin pressure points. Idea rejectedClark Wissler argued that performance on these tests of intelligenceshould be related to academic performanceTraditions in the study of intelligenceThe core of intelligence is judgement....To judge well, to comprehend well, to reason well, these are the essential activities of intelligence.The nature of intelligenceSome theorists are lumpers,who view different aspects of intelligence as part of a general underlying capacity. Others are splitters,who divide intelligence into two or more specific abilities. Two Factor TheoryProposed that general intelligence (g) underlies all mental abilitiesUsed factor analysisSpecific intelligence (s)Raymond CattelloTwo types of gFluid - problem solving, reasoningCrystallized - specific knowledge
Multiple-Factor TheoryAdministered 56 different test to college studentsConcluded that human intelligence consists of seven factors:verbal comprehensionnumber abilityword fluencyspatial visualizationassociative memoryreasoningperceptual speedHoward GardnerThe word intelligence as used does not adequately encompass the kinds of genius found in great musicians, poets, dancers, and athletes.

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