lecture06 - CS 70 Discrete Mathematics for CS Fall 2004 Rao...

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Unformatted text preview: CS 70 Discrete Mathematics for CS Fall 2004 Rao Lecture 6 In this lecture we shall discuss the (complexity-theoretic) divide between two very similar problems: the problem of primality testing (i.e., of determining whether a given number is prime) and the problem of factoring (i.e., of finding a nontrivial divisor of a composite number). The difference in the difficulty of these two problems is the foundation upon which the RSA cryptosystem is built, and in the next lecture we will describe RSA in some detail. 1 Primality We are studying the complexity of two connected, number-theoretic problems: PRIMALITY Given an integer x , is it a prime? FACTORING Given an integer x , what are its prime factors? Obviously, PRIMALITY cannot be harder than FACTORING, since, if we knew how to factor, we would definitely know how to test for primality. What is surprising and fundamental and the basis of modern cryptography is that PRIMALITY is easy while FACTORING is hard! As we know, PRIMALITY can be trivially solved in O ( x ) time in fact, we need only test factors up to x . But, of course, these are both exponential algorithms exponential in the number n of bits of x , which is the more accurate and meaningful measure of the size of the problem (seen this way, the running times of the algorithms become O ( 2 n ) and O ( 2 n / 2 ) , respectively). In fact, pursuing this line (testing fewer and fewer factors) will get us nowhere: Since FACTORING is hard, our only hope for finding a fast PRIMALITY algorithm is to look for an algorithm that decides whether n is prime without discovering a factor of n in case the answer is no. We describe such an algorithm next. This algorithm is based on the following fact about exponentiationWe describe such an algorithm next....
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2008 for the course CS 1050 taught by Professor Huang during the Spring '05 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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lecture06 - CS 70 Discrete Mathematics for CS Fall 2004 Rao...

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