Millennials 2 - The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 36:248253 2010 Copyright Informa Healthcare USA Inc ISSN 0095-2990 print 1097-9891 online

Millennials 2 - The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol...

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The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse , 36:248–253, 2010 Copyright © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. ISSN: 0095-2990 print / 1097-9891 online DOI: 10.3109/00952990.2010.493590 Compulsive Buying Michel Lejoyeux, Ph.D. Paris 7 University, Department of Psychiatry, Paris, France, and Hospital Bichat Claude Bernard, AP-HP and Maison Blanche Hospital, Paris, France Aviv Weinstein, Ph.D. Hadassah Medical Organization, Jerusalem, Israel Background : Compulsive buying is a chronic, repetitive pur- chasing that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings, and may include symptoms equivalent to craving and withdrawal. Objectives : This article describes the addictive char- acteristics of compulsive buying, the psychiatric comorbidity, and the possibilities of treatment. Methods : Using PubMed and Med- Line search engines, we performed a review of published litera- ture over the period 1990–2010 using the keyword “compulsive buying”. Results : A key feature distinguishing compulsive buyers from normal consumers, collectors, and hoarders is that the for- mer focuses on the buying process itself, rather than the items bought. In this instance, the purchased items are usually never used, but tend to be hidden or thrown away. A recent screening study found that up to 5% of adult Americans appear to be af- flicted with this compulsion. Compulsive buying results in adverse consequences, including financial and legal problems, psychologi- cal distress (depression, guilt), and interpersonal conflict. The most commonly associated comorbidities are depression and eating dis- orders. Nothing is known about the neurobiology and genetics of compulsive buying and relatively little about its treatment. Cogni- tive behavioral therapy has some efficacy, but no medication has been effective in controlled trials. Conclusions : Compulsive buying can be described as a behavioral dependence. A great deal of future research is needed to improve our understanding of compulsive buying. Keywords behavioral addiction, compulsive buying, compulsive shopping INTRODUCTION The purpose of this article is to perform a review of recent works on compulsive buying and to evaluate whether compul- sive buying should be regarded as an impulsive-compulsive dis- order or also as behavioral addiction. Buying is a routine part of everyday life. However, in specific situations, buying may be unplanned and sudden, initiated on the spot, and associated Address correspondence to Professor Michel Lejoyeux, M.D., Ph.D., Bichat Hospital AP HP, Psychiatry, Rue Henri Huchard, Paris, 75018, France. E-mail: [email protected] with a strong urge and feeling of pleasure and excitement. When it is repetitive and associated with adverse consequences (usu- ally psychological and financial), this kind of buying is known as compulsive buying (1). Compulsive buying was first described in the early 20th century by Emil Kraepplin (2) and Eugen Bleuler (3). Diagnostic criteria for compulsive or addictive buy- ing were first proposed in 1994 (4) and later refined (5). These criteria describe symptoms equivalent of craving and withdrawal applied to buying behavior (6). However, compulsive buying is
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  • Fall '14
  • DeborahPembleton
  • The Land, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Body dysmorphic disorder, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Compulsive hoarding

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