Hist 1 Outline - Week I Neolithic Revolution Settled...

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Week I Neolithic Revolution Settled agriculture Technological Advancements o Irrigation (Sumer, 6,000 – 5,000 BCE) Results: Food Surplus o Gradual population growth Where? o Mesopotamia o The Nile Valley o Global Phenomenon India, East Asia, Mesoamerica Neolithic – New Stone Age “Mesopotamia” “Land between the rivers” Between the Tigris and the Euphrates river Key characteristics of “Civilization” o Settled populations Ceremonial centers Agriculture o Stratified society ( social rank, gender distinction) Hierarchical patriarchal Slavery o System of religious belief Polytheism Worship of multiple gods o Property, Commerce = Law Specialization of labor o The need for written language To do accounting because their economic transactions had  increased in complexity as their populations swelled Sumer – The first city-state o Uruk, Ur o  Babylon City State Urban center exercising political and economic control over the countryside  around it First city-state was Sumer
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Diplomacy and warfare Cuneiform Mixed system of phonetic symbols and pictographs that represented the sounds  of entire syllables or entire words From cuneus , Latin for “wedge” Used wedge-shaped marks impressed into clay tablets to record spoke language Week II Sargon of Akkad Akkadian Empire (c 2350 – 220 BCE) o First empire began when Sargon launched invasions far to the north and  south of his homeland in mid-Mesopotamia Hammurabi’s Code Support “the principles of truth and equity” and to protect the less powerful  members of society from exploitation Divided society into three categories: free persons, commoners, and slaves Most laws concerned the king’s interests as a property owner who leased many  tracts of land to tenants in return for rent or services Mycenae Famous for its rich graves, multiroomed palace, and massive fortification walls Rulers enriched themselves by dominating local farmers, conducting raids near  and far, and participating in seaborne trade Differences between Mycenae and Minoan civilizations o Mycenaeans spoke Greek and made burnt offerings to the goods; the  Minoans did neither o Minoans scattered sanctuaries across the landscape in caves, on  mountaintops, and in country villas; the mainlanders did none of this o Mycenaeans wrote document tablets  written in script called Linear B,  which was a pictographic script based on Minoan Linear A Linear B was used to write in Greek not Minoan Conquered the Minoan culture whose art they had so highly admired Greek “Dark Age”
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